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What the Buddha Taught?. December 6th, 2008. Agenda. The story of the Buddha’s life What did Buddha teach? The four noble truths The teaching of the four noble truths Why did Buddha teach the 4 noble truths? The core teachings of the four noble truths

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what the buddha taught

What the Buddha Taught?

December 6th, 2008

agenda
Agenda
  • The story of the Buddha’s life
  • What did Buddha teach?
    • The four noble truths
  • The teaching of the four noble truths
    • Why did Buddha teach the 4 noble truths?
    • The core teachings of the four noble truths
    • How is the teaching related to other teachings of the Buddha?
    • How do we use the teachings of the noble truths in our daily lives?
  • Discussion
buddha s life
Buddha’s life

Phase 2

Seeking for the

enlightenment

The wanderer’s life …

Phase 3

The awakened one

and the teachings

The awakened life…

Phase 1

Before going forth

to homelessness

The prince life ….

Before age 29

Age 29 - 35

Age 35 - 80

slide4
What did the Buddha Taught?The Four Noble Truths One of the earliest and first set of teachings taught by the Buddha

The 2nd Noble Truth

Samudaya, origin

There is a cause to this

un-satisfaction in life

The 4th Noble Truth

Nirodha-gamini patipada,

the way leading the ending

There is a way to

end the suffering

Why “noble truths” -- They are truths known

and penetrated by the nobles ones

Why the teachings of the four noble truths –

For the purification of all beings, for the ending

of suffering of all beings, Buddha taught the four

noble truths out of compassion to all beings

Why do we study the four noble truths -- For

ending of our own sufferings, For the

purification of all beings

cause

cause

effect

effect

The 3rd Noble Truth

Nirodha, ending

There is an ending of this

un-satisfaction in life

The 1st Noble Truth

Dukkha, suffering

There is un-satisfaction

in life

Staying in suffering,

if one is ignorant of the way

Moving towards happiness,

if one practices the way

  • The four noble truths
    • 苦集灭道 – Suffering, the cause of suffering, cessation, and the path to the ending of suffering
    • 苦 – Dukkha (translation: Stress, Suffering, non-satisfaction)
    • 集 – Samudaya (translation: Origin, cause)
    • 灭 – Nirodha (translation: cessation, end)
    • 道 – Nirodha-gamini patipada (translation: the way leading to cessation)

This is where all

non-enlightened

beings are at currently

the first noble truth dukkha
The first noble truth -- Dukkha
  • Dukkha:
    • Comes from the words that have a sense of “bad”, “empty”, “non lasting”, and “imperfection”
    • Often translated as “suffering”. There are 3 kinds of suffering
      • Dukkha-Dukkha: Ordinary suffering, such as illness, age, death, ….
      • Viparinama-Dukkha: Impermanence
      • Samkhara-Dukkha: Conditioned-ness
  • What are the kinds of Dukkha do we experience in our daily lives?
    • Power, money, land, women, ….
  • In the ancient teachings, Buddha talked about 12 kinds of Dukkha (SN 56.11)
    • Birth is stressful, aging is stressful, death is stressful; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stressful; association with the unbeloved is stressful, separation from the loved is stressful, not getting what is wanted is stressful. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are stressful
      • Birth (includes becoming, forming): the basis of all kinds of suffering
      • Aging (gray, brokenness): maturing of 5 aggregates, and leading to death
      • Death: fall, disjoin, the basis for suffering
      • Sorrow: burning in the mind, consuming the mind, like a poisoned dart that penetrates one’s heart (intrinsic suffering)
      • Lamentation: crying out loud, proclaiming virtues. This is a state of suffering due to formations and is a basis for suffering. It is a state after sorrow, it’s like being hit by the dart and then crying out loud.
      • Pain: Bodily pain, can cause grief in the foolish. Have bodily afflictions.
      • Grief: Mental pain. It can distress the mind and is intrinsically suffering
      • Despair: excessive burning of the mind (sorrow is like the cooking in a pot over low fire, lamentation is boiling when fire grows, despair is like the boiling is over, and unable to do anything more when it’s dried up)
      • Association with the unbeloved: meeting with disagreeable things, can induce harm (Hatred)
      • Separation from the loved: be parted from agreeable things (Greed)
      • Not getting what is wanted: “Want” itself is unobtainable object, wanting something that is not obtainable is suffering. It leads to seeking for endlessly (Greed)
      • Five aggregate of clinging
  • Three levels of suffering
    • Physical (birth, aging, death, lamentation, pain, …)
    • Mental (sorrow, grief, despair, …)
    • Being (becoming, formation, existence)
the second noble truth samudaya
The second noble truth -- Samudaya
  • Samudaya: the origin, the cause of suffering.
    • In short, the Buddha taught that “thirst” or craving is the root cause of all suffering.
      • MN 141:"And what, friends, is the noble truth of the origination of stress? The craving that makes for further becoming — accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now here & now there — i.e., craving for sensuality, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming.
        • Sensual desire or thirst for sensual pleasures
        • Thirst for becoming and existence
        • Thirst for non-becoming, non-existence
    • In longer version, the Buddha taught a chain of dependent origination as the cause of suffering, i.e., the 12 dependent origination.
      • “With ignorance as condition, the kamma formations; with kamma formations as condition consciousness; with consciousness as condition, mentality-materiality; with mentality-materiality as condition the sixfold sense base; with the sixfold sense base as condition, contact; with contact as condition, feeling; with feeling as condition, craving; with craving as condition, clinging; with clinging as condition, existence; with existence as condition, birth; with birth as condition, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair arise. Such is the origination of this entire mass of suffering.”
  • 12 dependent origination (SN 12.23)

1. Ignorance (avijja)2. Kamma formations (sankhara)3. Consciousness (viññana)4. Mentality-materiality (namarupa)5. Sixfold sense base (salayatana)6. Contact (phassa)7. Feeling (vedana)8. Craving (tanha)9. Clinging (upadana)10. Existence (bhava)11. Birth (jati)12. Suffering (dukkha)

  • What do we think the causes of the suffering for ourselves are?
the third noble truth nirodha
The third noble truth -- Nirodha
  • Nirodha (also Nirvana, Nibbana)
    • Cessation of the origination of the suffering and hence cessation of the suffering, extinction of thirst
    • It’s beyond language’s capacity to describe it, so Buddha often talked about Nirvana in terms of what it is not
      • MN 141: "And what, friends, is the noble truth of the cessation of stress? The remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving.
      • "Among whatever qualities there may be, fabricated or un-fabricated, the quality of dispassion — the subduing of intoxication, the elimination of thirst, the uprooting of attachment, the breaking of the round, the destruction of craving, dispassion, cessation, the realization of Unbinding — is considered supreme. Those who have confidence in the quality of dispassion have confidence in what is supreme; and for those with confidence in the supreme, supreme is the result.“
      • "This is peace, this is exquisite — the stilling of all fabrications, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the ending of craving, dispassion, cessation, Unbinding."
      • "From the remainderless fading & cessation of that very ignorance, there no longer exists [the sense of] the body on account of which that pleasure & pain internally arise. There no longer exists the speech... the intellect on account of which that pleasure & pain internally arise. There no longer exists the field, the site, the dimension, or the issue on account of which that pleasure & pain internally arise.“
  • Cessation is considered to be
    • Non-conditioned
    • Nibbana, an apprehend-able by noble ones
  • When do we have a sense of contentment in life, how does that feel like?
the fourth noble truth nirodha gamini patipada magga
The fourth noble truth -- Nirodha-gamini patipada, Magga
  • The way leading to the cessation of Dukkha, Magga, the path
    • It is also often referred to as “the middle way”, i.e., not taking the extremes of self-indulgence or self-deprivation
    • Buddha taught many different variations of the way, e.g.,
      • The framework of Virtue, Concentration and Wisdom (Sila, Samadhi, and Panna)
      • The four foundations of mindfulness (cattaro satipatthana)
        • Mindfulness of body, feelings, mind, dharma
      • The four right efforts (cattaro sammappadhana)
        • Avoid, abandon, cultivate, and sustain
      • The four bases for spiritual power (cattaro iddhipada)
        • Desire, energy, mind, investigation
      • The five spiritual faculties (panca indriyani)
        • Faith, effort, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom
      • The five powers (panca balani)
        • Faith, effort, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom
      • The seven factors of enlightenment (satta bojjhanga)
        • Mindfulness, investigation, effort, rapture, tranquility, concentration, equanimity
      • The noble eight-fold path (ariya atthangika magga) is the most comprehensive path
        • "And this, monks, is the noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of dukkha: precisely this Noble Eightfold Path:
        • right view
        • right resolve
        • right speech
        • right action
        • right livelihood
        • right effort
        • right mindfulness
        • right concentration
the noble eight fold path ariya atthangika magga
The Noble Eight-Fold Path -- Ariya atthangika magga
  • What is the right view?
  • The experience & knowledge of the 4 noble truths:
  • Suffering,苦
  • Cause of the suffering,集
  • Cessation of the suffering,滅
  • The way leading to the cessation of the suffering,道

Nibbana

  • The 8-fold noble path
    • Right view (sammaditthi)
      • Right view is an experience & wisdom or insights gained from the experience
      • The experience/insights are the 4 noble truths
      • Mundane right view is knowledge and supramundane is insights
    • Right intention (sammasankappa)
    • Right speech (sammavaca)
    • Right action (sammakammanta)
    • Right livelihood (samma-ajiva)
    • Right Effort (sammavayama)
    • Right mindfulness (sammasati)
    • Right concentration (sammasamadhi)
      • 4 Jhanas

Guided by the right view one strive with the practice of Sila

  • Virtue:
  • Bodily
  • Verbal
  • Mind

With virtue being the ground, one strives to apply mindfulness

  • The 4 right efforts:
  • Avoid
  • Abandon
  • Cultivate
  • Sustain
  • The 4 found. mindfulness:
  • Body
  • Feelings
  • Mind
  • Dharma

Bearing fruits of effort and mindfulness, one abides in Jhanas

The 4 Jhanas:

Five Jhana factors: applied and sustain thoughts, rapture, happiness, one pointed-ness

When right mindfulness and concentration reach perfection, right view matures into insights, i.e., the 4 noble truths, and one enters into nibbana.

the core teachings of the four noble truths
The core teachings of the four noble truths
  • Suffering
    • The five clinging aggregates
    • Six sense basis
    • Elements
    • 18 spheres
  • Cause/Origin of suffering
    • The 12 dependent origination
    • Craving
    • Kamma
  • Cessation of suffering
    • Nibbana
  • The path to the cessation of suffering
    • 8 fold noble path
the four noble truths and our daily lives
The Four Noble Truths and Our Daily Lives
  • Knowing of the suffering
  • Knowing of the disappearance of suffering
  • Knowing the causality of the phenomenon
  • Knowing the practice and practice
the four noble truths
The Four Noble Truths
  • The two systems covered by the four noble truths
    • Cause and effects
      • The origin of suffering (cause) leads to suffering (effect)
      • The path to cessation (cause) leads to cessation (effect)
    • Skillful and unskillful
      • The origin of suffering, i.e., craving, is unskillful and leads to suffering, the unskillful effect
      • The path to cessation is skillful, and leads to ending of suffering, cessation, the skillful effect
  • How are the four noble truths to be studied?
    • Sutra SN 56.11: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion
    • http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.than.html
sn 56 11 dhammacakkappavattana sutta setting the wheel of dhamma in motion
SN 56.11: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion
  • I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Varanasi in the Game Refuge at Isipatana. There he addressed the group of five monks:
  • "There are these two extremes that are not to be indulged in by one who has gone forth. Which two? That which is devoted to sensual pleasure with reference to sensual objects: base, vulgar, common, ignoble, unprofitable; and that which is devoted to self-affliction: painful, ignoble, unprofitable. Avoiding both of these extremes, the middle way realized by the Tathagata — producing vision, producing knowledge — leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding.
  • "And what is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that — producing vision, producing knowledge — leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding? Precisely this Noble Eightfold Path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that — producing vision, producing knowledge — leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding.
  • "Now this, monks, is the noble truth of stress:1 Birth is stressful, aging is stressful, death is stressful; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stressful; association with the unbeloved is stressful, separation from the loved is stressful, not getting what is wanted is stressful. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are stressful.
  • "And this, monks, is the noble truth of the origination of stress: the craving that makes for further becoming — accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now here & now there — i.e., craving for sensual pleasure, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming.
  • "And this, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of stress: the remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving.
  • "And this, monks, is the noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress: precisely this Noble Eightfold Path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.
slide15
"Vision arose, insight arose, discernment arose, knowledge arose, illumination arose within me with regard to things never heard before: 'This is the noble truth of stress'... 'This noble truth of stress is to be comprehended'... 'This noble truth of stress has been comprehended.'
  • "Vision arose, insight arose, discernment arose, knowledge arose, illumination arose within me with regard to things never heard before: 'This is the noble truth of the origination of stress'... 'This noble truth of the origination of stress is to be abandoned' 2 ... 'This noble truth of the origination of stress has been abandoned.'
  • "Vision arose, insight arose, discernment arose, knowledge arose, illumination arose within me with regard to things never heard before: 'This is the noble truth of the cessation of stress'... 'This noble truth of the cessation of stress is to be directly experienced'... 'This noble truth of the cessation of stress has been directly experienced.'
  • "Vision arose, insight arose, discernment arose, knowledge arose, illumination arose within me with regard to things never heard before: 'This is the noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress'... 'This noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress is to be developed'... 'This noble truth of the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress has been developed.' 3
  • "And, monks, as long as this knowledge & vision of mine — with its three rounds & twelve permutations concerning these four noble truths as they actually are present — was not pure, I did not claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & priests, its royalty & commonfolk. But as soon as this knowledge & vision of mine — with its three rounds & twelve permutations concerning these four noble truths as they actually are present — was truly pure, then I did claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its devas, Maras & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & priests, its royalty & commonfolk. Knowledge & vision arose in me: 'Unprovoked is my release. This is the last birth. There is now no further becoming.'"
  • That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the group of five monks delighted at his words. And while this explanation was being given, there arose to Ven. Kondañña the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye: Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation.
slide16
And when the Blessed One had set the Wheel of Dhamma in motion, the earth devas cried out: "At Varanasi, in the Game Refuge at Isipatana, the Blessed One has set in motion the unexcelled Wheel of Dhamma that cannot be stopped by priest or contemplative, deva, Mara or God or anyone in the cosmos." On hearing the earth devas' cry, the devas of the Four Kings' Heaven took up the cry... the devas of the Thirty-three... the Yama devas... the Tusita devas... the Nimmanarati devas... the Paranimmita-vasavatti devas... the devas of Brahma's retinue took up the cry: "At Varanasi, in the Game Refuge at Isipatana, the Blessed One has set in motion the unexcelled Wheel of Dhamma that cannot be stopped by priest or contemplative, deva, Mara, or God or anyone at all in the cosmos.
  • "So in that moment, that instant, the cry shot right up to the Brahma worlds. And this ten-thousand fold cosmos shivered & quivered & quaked, while a great, measureless radiance appeared in the cosmos, surpassing the effulgence of the devas.
  • Then the Blessed One exclaimed: "So you really know, Kondañña? So you really know?" And that is how Ven. Kondañña acquired the name Añña-Kondañña — Kondañña who knows.
dukkha mn 141 saccavibhanga sutra an analysis of the truths
Dukkha – MN 141 Saccavibhanga Sutra, An Analysis of the Truths
  • "Now what, friends, is the noble truth of stress? Birth is stressful, aging is stressful, death is stressful; sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stressful; association with the unbeloved is stressful; separation from the loved is stressful; not getting what is wanted is stressful. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are stressful.
  • "And what is birth? Whatever birth, taking birth, descent, coming-to-be, coming-forth, appearance of aggregates, & acquisition of [sense] spheres of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called birth.
  • "And what is aging? Whatever aging, decrepitude, brokenness, graying, wrinkling, decline of life-force, weakening of the faculties of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called aging.
  • "And what is death? Whatever deceasing, passing away, breaking up, disappearance, dying, death, completion of time, break up of the aggregates, casting off of the body, interruption in the life faculty of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called death.
  • "And what is sorrow? Whatever sorrow, sorrowing, sadness, inward sorrow, inward sadness of anyone suffering from misfortune, touched by a painful thing, that is called sorrow.
  • "And what is lamentation? Whatever crying, grieving, lamenting, weeping, wailing, lamentation of anyone suffering from misfortune, touched by a painful thing, that is called lamentation.
  • "And what is pain? Whatever is experienced as bodily pain, bodily discomfort, pain or discomfort born of bodily contact, that is called pain.
  • "And what is distress? Whatever is experienced as mental pain, mental discomfort, pain or discomfort born of mental contact, that is called distress.
  • "And what is despair? Whatever despair, despondency, desperation of anyone suffering from misfortune, touched by a painful thing, that is called despair.
mn 141 an analysis of the truths cont d
MN 141 An Analysis of the Truths (Cont’d)
  • "And what is the stress of association with the unbeloved? There is the case where undesirable, unpleasing, unattractive sights, sounds, aromas, flavors, or tactile sensations occur to one; or one has connection, contact, relationship, interaction with those who wish one ill, who wish for one's harm, who wish for one's discomfort, who wish one no security from the yoke. This is called the stress of association with the unbeloved.
  • "And what is the stress of separation from the loved? There is the case where desirable, pleasing, attractive sights, sounds, aromas, flavors, or tactile sensations do not occur to one; or one has no connection, no contact, no relationship, no interaction with those who wish one well, who wish for one's benefit, who wish for one's comfort, who wish one security from the yoke, nor with one's mother, father, brother, sister, friends, companions, or relatives. This is called the stress of separation from the loved.
  • "And what is the stress of not getting what is wanted? In beings subject to birth, the wish arises, 'O, may we not be subject to birth, and may birth not come to us.' But this is not to be achieved by wanting. This is the stress of not getting what is wanted. In beings subject to aging... illness... death... sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair, the wish arises, 'O, may we not be subject to aging... illness... death... sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair, and may aging... illness... death... sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair not come to us.' But this is not to be achieved by wanting. This is the stress of not getting what is wanted.
  • "And what are the five clinging-aggregates that, in short, are stressful? The clinging-aggregate of form, the clinging-aggregate of feeling, the clinging-aggregate of perception, the clinging-aggregate of fabrications, the clinging-aggregate of consciousness: These are called the five clinging-aggregates that, in short, are stressful.
  • "This, friends, is called the noble truth of stress.
the 12 dependent origination
The 12 dependent origination
  • 1 phase view of the 12 links
    • This 12 links are operating here and now in this very life, causing the world of suffering
  • 2 phase view of the 12 links
    • This 12 links are operating in the past life and causing future rebirth
  • 3 phase view of the 12 links
    • This 12 links are broken down into past, present, and future lives
  • How are we supposed to use this in our practices?
    • Follow the supra-mundane path
    • Use mindfulness to clarify the mind and weaken the ignorance
the second noble truth samudaya20
The second noble truth -- Samudaya
  • 12 dependent origination (SN 12.23)
    • Mundane Order

1. Ignorance (avijja)2. Kamma formations (sankhara)3. Consciousness (viññana)4. Mentality-materiality (namarupa)5. Sixfold sense base (salayatana)6. Contact (phassa)7. Feeling (vedana)8. Craving (tanha)9. Clinging (upadana)10. Existence (bhava)11. Birth (jati)12. Suffering (dukkha)

    • Transcendental Order
  • 1. Faith (saddha)2. Joy (pamojja)3. Rapture (piti)4. Tranquillity (passaddhi)5. Happiness (sukha)6. Concentration (samadhi)7. Knowledge and vision of things as
  • they are (yathabhutañanadassana)8. Disenchantment (nibbida)9. Dispassion (viraga)10. Emancipation (vimutti)11. Knowledge of destruction of the
  • cankers (asavakkhaye ñana)
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