Atherosclerosis Caitlin Cleary Biochemistry Spring ‘12
What is it? • A type of arteriosclerosis characterized by changes in the endothelial lining and the formation of a plaque • Occurs in people whose blood contains elevated levels of plasma lipids, such as cholesterol • Causes chest pain, heart attack, and stroke • Can lead to coronary artery disease
Inflammation • Promotes initiation and development of atherosclerosis, and therefore contributes to fast forming acute blood clots • Inflammation can be triggered by: • Infection • Obesity • Hypertension
Who is at risk? • Everyone! • By the time young adults reach their 30s, some degree of atherosclerosis has developed in 80 to 90% of people in the united states • Nearly 50% of the US population has elevated LDL cholesterol
Prevention • Start monitoring for risk factors in adolescents • Fasting Lipid Profile • Evaluate for hypertension • Screen for diabetes • Screen for metabolic syndrome • Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes • Diet • Physical activity • Cessation of smoking
Current Treatments • Dietary supplements and herbal preparations are questionable • LDL Cholesterol-Lowering Therapies • Statins • Ezetimibe • Eicosapentaenoic acid from Fish Oil • Niacin
Future Treatment? • Oral Anit-CD3 Antibody Treatment Study • Treated mice with 5 microgram dosage of anti-CD3 antibody for 5 days • 50% reduction in lesion formation • 38% reduction in accumulation of macrophages • 30% decrease in T-cell infiltration
Works Cited Campbell, Mary K., & Farrell, Shawn O. (2012). Biochemistry. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Lewis, Sandra J. (2009). Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: A Practitioner’s Guide for 2008. The American Journal of Medicine, 122(1A), 38-50. Libby, Peter., Ridker, Paul M., & Maseri, Attilio. (2002). Inflammation and Atherosclerosis. Journal of the American Heart Association, 105, 1135-1143. Sasaki, Naoto., Yamashita, Tomoya., Takeda, Masafumi., Shinohara, Masakazu., Nakajima, Kenji., Tawa, Hideto., et al. (2009). Oral Anti-CD3 Antibody Treatment Reduces Regulatory T Cells and Inhibits the Development of Atherosclerosis in Mice. Journal of the American Heart Association, 120, 1996-2005.