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AGENDA: Visual and Radar Lines of Position Plotting Visual and Electronic Fixes Selecting a Navigation Aid Resolving Fix PowerPoint Presentation
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Lesson 6: Lines of Position & Fixes. AGENDA: Visual and Radar Lines of Position Plotting Visual and Electronic Fixes Selecting a Navigation Aid Resolving Fix Ambiguity. Lines of Position (LOP’s). LOP - A plotted line on which a vessel is located.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Lesson 6: Lines of Position& Fixes

  • AGENDA:
    • Visual and Radar Lines of Position
    • Plotting Visual and Electronic Fixes
    • Selecting a Navigation Aid
    • Resolving Fix Ambiguity
lines of position lop s
Lines of Position (LOP’s)

LOP - A plotted line on which a vessel is located.

A visual LOP can be taken, or “shot”, using fixed navigational aids such as tanks, water towers, church steeples, spires, radio and TV towers, daymarkers, fixed navigation lights, flagpoles, or tangents to points of land.

slide3

Single LOP

Tank

Visual LOP

Light

FL 6s 58ft 9M

Long

9

Point

5

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slide4

Tank

Radar Range LOP

Light

FL 6s 58ft 9M

Long

9

Point

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slide6

Visual Ranges

  • Visual Range - The most accurate type of LOP, when two known objects line up.
    • Some ranges are man made, “intentional”; others are natural, “coincidental”.
slide7

INTENTIONAL RANGE

COINCIDENTAL RANGE

plotting and labeling a fix
Plotting and Labeling a Fix

Fix - The point where two or more LOP’s cross. This indicates the ship’s position on the chart.

Label - Use the four digit time next to the fix,

it should be parallel to the bottom of

the chart. The times of the individual LOPs are not written on each LOP.

slide9

Tank

Visual Fix

Light

FL 6s 58ft 9M

Long

9

Point

5

5

9

9

5

9

9

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slide10

TWR

6

6

6

12

12

12

Tank

6

Electronic Fix

12

slide11

Labeling Fixes

Symbol Type Meaning

Fix

Fix

DR

EP

Accurate Visual Fix

Accurate Fix obtained by electronic means

Dead reckon position, advanced from previous fix.

Estimated position. Most probable position of ship.

slide12

Tank

Light

FL 6s 58ft 9M

Long

9

Point

5

5

9

9

5

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pa

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1503

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C 090º

C 090º

S 10

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1506

20

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21

1503

1506

20

S 10

21

1500

21

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R FL 2s 38ft 10M

the centroid concept
The Centroid Concept

Problem - If a large triangle is formed by a

3 LOP fix, mark the center of

the triangle as the fix.

Danger - If the large triangle is near a hazard

then choose the part of the triangle

closest to the hazard.

slide14

SPIRE

TWR

TANK

1145

wk

Labeling Visual Fixes

(Centroid Concept)

1036

optimum spread of lop s
Optimum Spread of LOP’s

Best Fix - LOP’s must be widely spaced,

two LOP’s at nearly the same

angle will be less accurate.

Formula - 3600/ number of LOP’s

Example: There are three LOP’s then

optimum separation is 1200.

slide16

Visual Fix

0930

60

60

LT

TWR

TANK

slide17

90

TWR

SPIRE

90

1036

1039

TANK

Visual Fix

determining the sequence of shooting lop s
Determining the Sequence of Shooting LOP’s

Bearings LOP’s - “Shoot” visual bearings

that are on the beam

first because they

change the fastest.

Shoot Bearings: “Beam to Bow”

Range LOP’s - “Shoot” radar ranges on

the bow/stern first because

their range changes fastest.

Shoot Ranges: “Bow to Beam”

navigational aid selection
Navigational Aid Selection

Choose Nav Aids based on:

- Provides the best bearing spread.

- Lighted so that Nav Aids can be used

in low visibility and day or night.

- Easily distinguishable

by bearing takers.

Example: Which radio tower?

review
REVIEW

1. What are the two types of LOP’s ?

2. How do you label a single LOP ?

3. The most accurate type of LOP is called?

4. Name three ways visual bearings can

be measured? And what must they be

converted to in order to plot them on

the chart?

5. Explain how to choose the centroid of

a triangle from a poor fix?

homework
HOMEWORK
  • Using chart 12245 plot and label the following visual aids:
    • A) 36° 57’ 14” N

76° 19’ 37” W

    • B) 36° 55’ 54.5” N

76° 19’ 44” W

    • C) 36° 56’ 42” N

76° 18’ 36” W

DO NOT ERASE THESE MARKS!!

homework22
HOMEWORK
  • Using chart 12245 and the visual aids plotted on the previous slide, use the bearings below from your ship to determine your position:

A) 018°T

B) 166°T

C) 078°T

DO NOT ERASE THESE MARKS!!

slide23

2357

Visual Bearing LOP

TWR

Radar

Range

LOP

2246

slide24

TR

Visual Fix