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Soil and soil-water relationships. W. Anderson Murfreesboro Master Gardener Feb 20, 2009. From UTK Extension Publications Planning the Vegetable Garden SP291-M Soil Preparation for Vegetable Gardens SP 291-C Care of the Vegetable Garden SP 291-D Organic Vegetable Gardening PB 1391.

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Soil and soil-water relationships


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soil and soil water relationships

Soil and soil-water relationships

W. Anderson

Murfreesboro Master

Gardener

Feb 20, 2009

slide2

From UTK Extension Publications

Planning the Vegetable Garden SP291-M

Soil Preparation for Vegetable Gardens

SP 291-C

Care of the Vegetable Garden SP 291-D

Organic Vegetable Gardening PB 1391

definitions
Definitions
  • Natural medium composed of solids, liquids, and gases that occurs on land surfaces
  • Supports plant and animal life
  • Upper limit, lower limit, plant roots
  • Does not cover all the Earth land surface
  • It is not tracked in on the house carpet
soil components
Soil Components
  • General rule, a soil is about one-half solids and one-half pores
  • Water and air fills the pore space
  • Soil air is lower in O2 and higher in CO2 than surface air
    • Plant roots
    • Biological organisms
soil components5
Soil Components
  • Solids
    • Soil texture, relative proportion sands, silts, clays sized materials, separates
      • Sand 2.0 mm to .05 mm
      • Silts .05 mm to .002 mm
      • Clays less than .002 mm
    • Clay soils, large surface area; small pores
    • Sandy soils, small surface area, large pores
    • Clay and Sand differ in ability to provide plants with water, nutrients, aeration and physical support
    • Sands are drier, less fertile but better aerated & able to support plants
soil texture
Soil Texture
  • Twelve textural classes
  • 3 clay textures, 3 clay loam textures, 3 loam textures
  • 0 to 100 % sand, silt and clay by weight
  • Example: Clays, > 35% clay sized particles
  • Textural class Possible percentage
    • Clay 20% sand, 20% silt, 60% clay
    • Clay loam 30% sand, 35% silt, 35% clay
    • Loam 40% sand, 40% silt, 20% clay
soil components8
Soil Components
  • Solids
    • Aggregate glue sand, silt and clay sized particles together
      • Granular – glue organic matter and calcium
      • Destroy soil aggregates – adding sodium
    • Density- mass per volume-pore space
    • Texture lbs/cu ft % pore space
      • Loam 84 49
      • Clay loam 79 53
      • Clay 74 56
http soils usda gov education resources k 12 lessons texture
http://soils.usda.gov/education/resources/k_12/lessons/texture/http://soils.usda.gov/education/resources/k_12/lessons/texture/
soil water classification for water management
Soil Water Classification for Water Management

Think of a soil as a sponge lift the saturated sponge up does water drip.

  • Saturation
    • Gravitational water - drainable
  • Field Capacity [FC]
    • Maximum Plant available water
  • Permanent wilting point [WP]
    • Plant unavailable water
  • Air dry
    • Unavailable water
  • Oven dry
volumetric soil water content ranges
Volumetric Soil Water Content Ranges

Textural class Θv @ FC Θv @ WP

Sand .07-.17 .02-.07

Loam .20-.30 .07-.17

Silt loam .22-.36 .09-.21

Clay .32-.40 .20-.24

Available Water = Θv @ FC - Θv @ WP

Θv * inches of soil = inches of water in soil

http www mt nrcs usda gov technical ecs agronomy soilmoisture clay html
http://www.mt.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ecs/agronomy/soilmoisture/clay.htmlhttp://www.mt.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ecs/agronomy/soilmoisture/clay.html
  • Clay, Clay Loam, and Silty Clay Loam Soils
  • Appearance of Clay, Clay Loam, and Silty Clay Loam Soils at Various Soil Moisture Conditions
  • 75 to 100 percent available 0.6 to 0.0 inches per foot depleted
  • Wet, forms a ball, uneven medium to heavy soil/water coating on fingers, ribbons easily between thumb and forefinger.
irrigation
Irrigation
  • Maximize production, vegetable require 1 to 2 ½ inches of water per week
  • 1 inch of water over 100 square feet = 8.3 cubic feet or 520 lbs water
  • Less water early in growing season
  • More when plants are larger and setting fruit
  • Apply water slowly
  • Don’t do frequent shallow watering. Why? Shallow root growth you want deep roots
irrigation 2
Irrigation (2)
  • Irrigate early to reduce incident and spread of disease
  • Cultivate prior to overhead irrigation to increase water infiltration
  • Trickle irrigation, reduce water use by up to 50 times
    • Reduces weed growth, weed problems, soil compaction
    • Expensive
irrigation 3
Irrigation (3)
  • Irrigation system
    • Back flow preventer must be connected to water source
    • Screen or disk filter
    • 10 to 12 psi pressure regulator
    • Trickle tape
    • Pressure gauge
irrigation 4
Irrigation (4)
  • Soaker hose – non engineered
    • Cheap
    • Not uniform water distribution
  • Trickle system can be purchased at garden centers for $100 to $200
time irrigation properly
Time Irrigation Properly
  • Water late in day – increase diseases
  • Trickle, drip, furrow – conserve water, avoid foliage diseases
  • Sprinkler irrigation – best done early morning – apply 1 to 1 ½ inches of water – wait several days before repeating
  • Less frequent irrigation – less foliage and root diseases
use mulches
Use Mulches
  • Reduce some pest pressures but increase others
  • Reduce moisture stress
  • Reduce weed pressure
maintaining or increasing soil organic matter
Maintaining or Increasing Soil Organic Matter
  • Improves structure
  • Holds water
  • Increase microbe activity
  • Stored and releases nutrients
  • Plants and animals (organic matter) decay to more stable organic matter called humus
  • Balance between lost and added
maintaining or increasing soil organic matter 2
Maintaining or Increasing Soil Organic Matter (2)
  • Sandy soils – less Soil organic matter
  • Clayey soils – more soil organic matter
  • More soil mixing – less soil organic matter
  • Tennessee – warm moist climate – favors decomposition
using crop residues
Using Crop Residues
  • Residue source of organic matter
  • Left or composted
  • If left – may increase insect, disease and weed problems
  • Turning under – breaks down faster – releases some nutrients
  • Fewer insect, disease and weed seed survive
using lime and organic fertilizers
Using Lime and Organic Fertilizers
  • Increase Soil pH
    • Ground limestone
    • How much? Soil test
    • Calcite, dolomite
    • Basic slag
    • Wood ashes – don’t dump in one spot
adding nutrients manure
Adding Nutrients - Manure
  • Manure
    • N, P, K
    • Poultry manure highest in N, P, and K
    • Spread on garden before planting
      • 250-500 lbs large animal manure per 1000 square feet
      • 100 to 200 lbs poultry manure per 1000 square feet
    • Irish potato and sweet potato develop scab and canker if manure is used
adding nutrients non manure
Adding Nutrients – non-manure
  • Fertilizer %N %P2O5 %K2O
  • Blood meal 8-15 0-3 ---
  • Bone meal 2-4 12-28 ---
  • Granite dust --- --- 3.5
  • Greensand --- 1-1.5 5-6
  • Wood ashes --- 1-2 3-7
  • Guano .5-12 4-8 1-3
questions
Questions
  • What is soil?
  • Why manage water? How can a soils field capacity be used to manage irrigation?
  • Why should fertilizer be used? Can fertilizer improve a plants water use efficiency?
water
Water
  • Precious resource
  • Lost water means lost dollars
  • What is water use efficiency?
  • Defined as equal to units of crop production from each available unit of water
  • Example: bushels of grain per inch of water
slide27
A long term fertility experiment has been conduct in Illinois. The experiment is called the Morrow Plots. The plots are on the National Historic Registry.
the morrow plots to gauge wue
The Morrow Plots to gauge WUE
  • Plots received only lime, manure, rock phosphate or bone meal from 1904 to 1955
  • 1955 a portion of some plot received lime, and commercial fertilizer annually
  • Fertilized continuous corn used precipitation more efficiently
  • Better management and improved varieties have also increased crop yield
the morrow plots can gauge wue
The Morrow Plots can gauge WUE
  • Yields of both fertilized and unfertilized corn are increasing.

from 1955-1984

Fertilized Not Fertilized

130-150 bu/acre 40-50 bu/acre

the morrow plots can gauge wue30
The Morrow Plots can gauge WUE
  • Dry weather and poor fertility can reduce WUE. Proper fertilization that builds high fertility can help the crop overcome drought stress.

from 1955-1984

Fertilized Not Fertilized

3.3 bu/inch of water 1bu/inch if water

question
Question
  • If plants are fed the proper amounts of N, P2O5 & K2O will these plants:
    • Produce more dry matter/acre: T or F
    • Remove more CO2 from atmosphere: T or F
    • Will decrease the amount of water percolation through the soil and regolith: T or F
    • Will increase the amount of chemicals percolation through the soil and regolith to the ground water: T or F
    • Will utilize water less efficiently: T or F
what a soil need to grow 150 bu ac of corn
What a soil need to grow: 150 bu/ac of corn
  • Ingredient pounds per acre supplied
  • Water 6 to 8 million 30 to 36 inches of rain
  • Oxygen 10,200
  • Carbon 7800 C or carbon in 6 tons of coal
  • 28,500 CO2
  • N 310 675 lbs urea
  • P 52 115 lbs TSP
  • K 205 340 lbs KCl
  • Ca 58 150 lbs ground limestone
  • S 33
  • Mg 50
  • Fe 3
  • Mn .45
  • B .10
  • Cu trace
  • Mo trace
question33
Question
  • Cost to remove 28,000 CO2/ac from atmosphere? {basis: cost of Nitrogen}
  • 675 lb Urea * 45 lb N/100 lb Urea =304lb N
  • 28,000 lb CO2/304 lb N =93 lb CO2/ 1 lb N
  • 93 lb CO2 /lb N * lb N/ $ 0.30 =310 lb CO2 / $1.00 of N
slide34
Typical topsoil – approximate composition
  • Soil
  • basisSolids liquids Gases
  • % by vol 50 25 25
  • InorganicOrganic
  • % by vol 40 10
  • % by wt 95 5
slide35
INORGANIC Fraction ORGANIC Fraction
  • (decomposed things)
  • SandSilt Clay Humus
  • Primary Secondary Colloids
  • Minerals Minerals
  • Quartz layer silicate
  • Feldspar hydrous oxide
  • mica
questions36
Questions
  • What are primary minerals?
  • What are secondary minerals?
slide37
Soil - Root System
  • Rye plant in 1 cu ft of soil for 4 months
  • Length –miles surface area – sq ft
  • Roots 385 2550
  • Root hairs 6600 4320
questions38
Questions
  • Soil resources in the USA (TN) do not have enough available nonmetals and metals elements for normal growth and development of plants and animals.
    • TN land area -1980
    • Cropland 5.1 million ac
    • Grassland 5.5 million ac
    • Woodland 11.7 million ac Now 14 million ac
    • Urban 1.7 million ac
    • Other 1 million ac
    • Federal 1.2 million ac
slide39
Non-metal elements human function
  • N protein
  • Se antioxidant
  • P bones & teeth
  • Metal human function
  • Cobalt vitamin B12
  • Zn sexual maturity
  • Mn bone formation, Insulin Production
  • Cu red blood cell formation
questions40
Questions
  • Emphasize
    • There is a difference between plant available content and total elemental content
    • Soil testing; plant available content
other topics
Other topics
  • Soil Testing, PB 1061 by Dr. H. Savoy
  • Liming Acid Soils in Tennessee, PB 1096 by Dr H. Savoy
additional topics
Additional topics
  • Landscape Irrigation by Dr. J Buchanan, CD in the extension office
  • Commercial WEB sites
    • RainBird Irrigation at www.rainbird now look under landscape irrigation
    • Toro Irrigation at www.toro.com/sprinklers/index.html
    • Hunter Industries at www.hunterindustries.com
  • Book Source: Simplified Irrigation Design ISBM 0-471-28622-22