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PRT 2008 PERTANIAN & MANUSIA. Dr. Amin Mahir Abdullah Jabatan Perniagaantani dan Sistem Maklumat , Fakulti Pertanian Block B, 2 nd Floor E-mail: LECTURE TOPICS & COURSE ASSESSMENT. Course Assessment. No final exam No Semester Test 1.Quiz 1 20%

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prt 2008 pertanian manusia


Dr. Amin Mahir Abdullah

JabatanPerniagaantanidanSistemMaklumat, FakultiPertanian

Block B, 2nd Floor


course assessment
Course Assessment

No final exam

No Semester Test

1.Quiz 1 20%

2.Quiz 2 20%

3. Quiz 3 20%

Group assignment

- Group Oral Presentation 10%

- Paper submission on special topics 30%


introduction scope of modern agriculture
1. Definition

2. Importance of agriculture

3. Agriculture practices/systems

Subsistence farming

Commercialised farming

4. Agri-based Industries (Industri Asas Tani)

Introduction & scope of modern agriculture
    • AGRI: Latin Ager = Field
    • CULTURE: Latin Cultura = cultivation/ tillage of the soil
  • .
what is agriculture
What is Agriculture?
  • the art and science of growing plants and the raising of animals for food, other human needs, or economic gain .
  • This definition describes agriculture as both an art and a science (needs skill and founded on scientifically verified facts) and thus includes specialized disciplines; the words “growing” and “raising” are descriptive of enterprise, activity or practice. It has two main divisions: plant or crop production and animal or livestock production; and it’s ultimate purpose is for food production, other human needs, or for economic gain.
  • some definitions include fisheries, forestry, and other activities.
  • Further, the science of agriculture is dynamic.

  • utilisation of natural resource systems to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and their related services

Agriculture: Traditional versus Modern

  • Traditional agriculture
  • subsistence in nature – for self and family’s survival.
  • small size farm or small number of livestock
  • disorganized , normadic

Modern Agriculture is a business or commercial approach

  • Large size, Mechanized, profit oriented
  • Produced for food, non food and raw materials to agro-based industries.
  • Eg oil palm plantation: oil into food, pharmaceutical, soap, now bio-fuel etc
      • Continual improvement in agricultural methods, resources and involve specialists in agriculture. (economists, scientists, inventors, engineers etc)





Physical Sciences

Biological Sciences


Civilization began with agriculture. When our nomadic ancestors began to settle and grow their own food, human society was forever changed. Not only did villages, towns and cities begin to flourish, but so did knowledge, the arts and the technological sciences.

Importance of Agriculture

Civilization began with agriculture. When our nomadic ancestors began to settle and grow their own food, human society was forever changed. Not only did villages, towns and cities begin to flourish, but so did knowledge, the arts and the technological sciences.

And for most of history, society's connection to the land was intimate. Human communities, no matter how sophisticated, could not ignore the importance of agriculture. To be far from dependable sources of food was to risk malnutrition and starvation

In modern times, however, many in the urban world have forgotten this fundamental connection. Insulated by the apparent abundance of food that has come from new technologies for the growing, transportation and storage of food, humanity's fundamental dependence on agriculture is often overlooked.


Importance of Agriculture



Roads, schools, ICT, etc

Rural Development

National Income

Contribution to GDP

Provides employment opportunities and entrepreneurship

Improve living stds. thru agric. actitivies

Poverty reduction


Skills and competencies, science & technology, biodiversity

Industrial linkages: raw materials to manufacturing and service industries


Input to other industries

Multiple income to family

International trade

Export commodities: BOT

Livestock, crops, aquaculture, waste to wealth

Food Source

Multi dimensional

Beside production: eg. Agro-tourism.

Food security: health and nutrition

importance of agriculture
Year 2002 estimated:

40% worlds population is employed in agriculture.

Importance of Agriculture

Source: Nationmaster accessed Nov 2011

importance of agriculture1
Importance of Agriculture

So why important??

  • Least develop country – food for survival

2) Developing/Advance dev. & industrialized country produce raw material for industrialized nations ( eg rubber, cocoa, lifestock, palm oil etc)

3) Maintain socio-political stability of a country in difficult times (eg drought) – need food stock-pile

4) Income - now agr. waste into feeds & fertilizers, oil palm wood, wooden tiles etc


FAO is carrying out agricultural rehabilitation activities in Burundi valued at around $60 million, targeting 1 250 000 people over a period of two years

but agriculture is alleged to cause
BUT…… agriculture is alleged to cause


Polluted waterways and wetlands

i. Nitrogen and phosphorus (from inorganic fertilizers)

ii. Pesticides and other biocides

AFFECTS: Biodiversity of plants and animals

agricultural practices systems
Agricultural Practices/Systems

1. Subsistence Farming

2. Commercial Farming

1 subsistence farming
1. Subsistence Farming

working on a plot of land to produce only enough food to feed the family working on it


- Low input & Low yield

  • Inter-cropping
  • Slash and burn (nomadic)
  • Low external input
  • Enough food to feed family
  • No surplus to sell or storage for long term
subsistence farming
Subsistence farming


  • Most primitive form
  • Once soil fertility wanes, farmers abandon
  • Improvement to shifting cultivation: Family works permanently on the land – that has undergone slash & burn cultivation- still poor in nutrients, thus poor yield
  • Now raising domesticated livestock for food- small enclosure or limited free range

Subsistence farming

  • As in 2006 still practiced in:
  • Africa – Benin, Botswana, Congo,

Guinea, Rwanda, Madagascar,

Sierra Leone and Zambia.

  • Central and South America – Mexico,

Ecuador and Bolivia.

  • Europe – Yugoslavia and Albania.
  • Polynesia – Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu.
  • SE-Asia – Sarawak, Indonesian Borneo,

Laos, Cambodia.

2 commercial farming
2. Commercial Farming


  • Monoculture or combination of a few crops.
  • Use of high yielding modern varieties
  • Large chemicals input (Pesticides & fertilizers)
  • High use of technology and machineries.
commercial farming
Commercial Farming

1. Tropical Plantation Agriculture

- Monocropping

ie: Rubber, oil palm, cocoa , coffee, coconut.

- Suitable humid tropical climate

- Yield exported to industrialised nations

- Crop-animal integrated farming: Private & state owned.

- Animal: free range, under shelters

commercial farming1
Commercial Farming

2. Vegetable Farming


  • Production in block or row
  • Open or enclosed
  • Use machinery
  • Efficient and high output
  • Labour intensive

Ripening technologies and Refrigeration has reduced the problem with getting fresh produce to market. Eg; uniformed ripeness.

commercialised farming vegetable
Commercialised Farming-Vegetable

i) Organic Farming

  • Involve crop rotation (dissimilar crops)
    • Avoid build up of pests and diseases
    • Helps balance soilfertility
  • No chemicals are used
  • Pest control depends on natural enemies (predators)
  • Organic fertilizers (manure)
commercial farming2
Commercial Farming

ii) Soilless culture

  • providing plants with support and a reservoir for nutrients and


  • Growing without soil
  • Controlled environment
  • High production
  • High quality
  • No soil-borne diseases and weeds
  • No tillage
type of soilless culture
Type of soilless culture
    • Nutrient Film Technique
    • Deep water culture
    • Aeroponics

Plants are grown in channels into which the nutrient solution is pumped constantly. Plants are kept moist by the thin film of nutrient solution as it passes by.

  • Nutrient film technique

This technique is susceptible to power outage and pump failures

deep water culture
Deep water culture

The water culture system is the simplest whereby the plant roots are suspended and allowed to hang down o floats into aerated nutrient solution


is probably the most high-tech type. Plants are grown with their roots suspended in a mist of nutrient solution delivered by a mist sprayer controlled by a short cycle timer.

  • Aeroponics
3. Aquaculture

Cultivation of aquatic organisms

i) Mariculture (culture in ocean)

ii) Algaculture (seaweed & other algae)

iii) Freshwater fish & prawns farming (catfish, tilapia) in ponds/tanks

iv) semi-aquatic animals: crocodile, frogs, snails in tanks/ ponds

4.Lifestock farming (domesticated animals for agriculture.

- animal husbandry (raising animals)

  • In closure / shelters or rangeland- free roaming
5. New products and future industries.
  • Development of biotechnology products :
    • extraction of natural chemicals from biological resources
    • utilization of oil palm biomass
    • Examples include recreational fishery, agroforestry, herbal farming, mushroom cultivation and agrotourism.
downstream processing
Downstream Processing







PLANTS ----furnitures,

ANIMALS-- wools, leather