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Chemical Bonds
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  1. Chemical Bonds Sodium Name 11 Atomic Number Na Symbol 22.990 Atomic Mass + + + + + proton + + + + neutron + + + - electron nucleus Orbital Notation Electron Configuration Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  2. Chemical Bonds + + + + + + + + + + + nucleus Sodium Name 11 Atomic Number Na Symbol 22.990 Atomic Mass 1s 2s + proton - - neutron - electron electron cloud Na Orbital Notation 1s Na 1s2 Electron Configuration Na Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  3. Chemical Bonds + + + + + + + + + + + nucleus Sodium Name 11 Atomic Number Na Symbol 22.990 Atomic Mass 1s - 2s + proton - - 2px - neutron - - electron electron cloud Na Orbital Notation 1s 2s 2p Na 1s2 2s2 Electron Configuration Na Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  4. Chemical Bonds + + + + + + + + + + + nucleus Na Orbital Notation 1s 2s 2p Na 1s2 2s2 Electron Configuration Na Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure Sodium Name 11 Atomic Number Na Symbol 22.990 Atomic Mass 1s - - 2s - + proton - - 2px - neutron 2py - - electron 2pz electron cloud

  5. Chemical Bonds + + + + + + + + + + + nucleus Na Orbital Notation 1s 2s 2p Na 1s2 2s2 Electron Configuration Na Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure Sodium Name 11 Atomic Number Na Symbol 22.990 Atomic Mass 1s - - 2s - - + proton - - 2px - - neutron - 2py - - electron 2pz electron cloud 2p6

  6. Chemical Bonds + + + + + + + + + + + nucleus Na Orbital Notation 1s 2s 2p Na 1s2 2s2 Electron Configuration Na Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure Sodium Name 11 Atomic Number Na Symbol 22.990 Atomic Mass 1s - - - 2s - - + proton - - 2px - - neutron - 2py - - electron 3s 2pz electron cloud 3s 2p6 3s1

  7. Chemical Bonds 1s - + + + + - - 2s - - + + + + - - 2px - - - 2py + + + - 3s 2pz nucleus 1s 2s 3s 2p Na 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 Sodium Name 11 Atomic Number Na Symbol 22.990 Atomic Mass + proton neutron - electron electron cloud Na Orbital Notation Electron Configuration Na Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  8. Chemical Bonds Chlorine Name 17 Atomic Number Cl Symbol 35.453 Atomic Mass + + + + + + proton + + + + + neutron + + + + + - electron + + nucleus Orbital Notation Electron Configuration Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  9. Chemical Bonds Chlorine Name 17 Atomic Number Cl Symbol 35.453 Atomic Mass 1s + + + + + 2s + proton + + + + + - - neutron + + + + + - electron + + nucleus electron cloud Cl Orbital Notation 1s Cl 1s2 Electron Configuration Cl Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  10. Chemical Bonds Chlorine Name 17 Atomic Number Cl Symbol 35.453 Atomic Mass 1s - + + + + + 2s + proton + + + + + - - 2px - neutron + + + + + - - electron + + nucleus electron cloud Cl Orbital Notation 1s 2s 2p Cl 1s2 2s2 Electron Configuration Cl Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  11. Chemical Bonds Chlorine Name 17 Atomic Number Cl Symbol 35.453 Atomic Mass 1s - + + + + + - 2s - + proton + + + + + - - 2px - neutron 2py + + + + + - - electron + + 2pz nucleus electron cloud Cl Orbital Notation 1s 2s 2p Cl 1s2 2s2 Electron Configuration Cl Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  12. Chemical Bonds Chlorine Name 17 Atomic Number Cl Symbol 35.453 Atomic Mass 1s - + + + + + - 2s - - + proton + + + + + - - 2px - - neutron - 2py + + + + + - - electron + + 2pz nucleus electron cloud Cl Orbital Notation 1s 2s 2p Cl 1s2 2s2 2p6 Electron Configuration Cl Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  13. Chemical Bonds 3pz 3py Chlorine Name 17 Atomic Number Cl 3px Symbol 35.453 Atomic Mass 1s - + + + + + - - 2s - - + proton + + + + + - - - 2px - - - neutron - - 2py + + + + + - - electron 3s - + + 2pz nucleus electron cloud Cl Orbital Notation 1s 2s 3s 2p 3p Cl 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 Electron Configuration Cl Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  14. Chemical Bonds 3pz 3py Chlorine Name 17 Atomic Number Cl 3px Symbol 35.453 Atomic Mass 1s - - + + + + + - - 2s - - + proton - + + + + + - - - 2px - - - neutron - - 2py + + + + + - - electron 3s - + + 2pz nucleus electron cloud Cl Orbital Notation 1s 2s 3s 2p 3p Cl 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 Electron Configuration Cl Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  15. Chemical Bonds Name Atomic Number Be Symbol Atomic Mass + proton neutron - electron nucleus electron cloud Be Orbital Notation Be Electron Configuration Be Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  16. Chemical Bonds Beryllium Name 4 Atomic Number Be Symbol 9.012 Atomic Mass 1s - 2s + + proton + - - neutron + + - - electron nucleus electron cloud Be Orbital Notation 1s 2s Be 1s2 2s2 Electron Configuration Be Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  17. Chemical Bonds + + + + + + + + Oxygen Name 8 Atomic Number O Symbol 15.999 Atomic Mass 1s - - 2s - - + proton - - 2px - neutron 2py - - electron 2pz nucleus electron cloud O Orbital Notation 1s 2s 2p O 1s2 2s2 2p4 Electron Configuration O Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

  18. Draw orbital notations for the following: Draw electron configurations for the following: Draw electron-dot (Lewis-Dot) structures for the following: 1s2 2s2 2p2 1s 2s 2p 1s2 2s2 2p6 1s 2s 2p 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 1s 2s 3s 2p 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 2p 2p 1s 2s 3s 3p Ca 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3s 1s 2s 4s 3p C C C Ne Ne Ne Mg Mg Mg P P P Ca Ca

  19. Forming an Ionic Bond + Na - Cl + Be Na + 1s 2s -O Be+ - 2p + 3s O O - - 2s Na -Cl Sodium chloride Na+ Cl Cl 1s 2s 3s 2p 3p Be Be 1s Beryllium oxide O 1s 2s 2p

  20. Chemical Bond -the force that holds two atoms together -Cl -O Na+ Be+ - + -formation of chemical bonds allows atoms to form a Noble Gas configuration of valence electrons, allowing them to become more stable and exist at a lower state of potential energy A. Ionic Bond -chemical bond formed by the exchange of electrons between a very electropositive atom (metal) and a very electronegative atom (nonmetal) which results in the formation of oppositely- charged ions, which are strongly attracted to each- other Ionic compounds -electronegativity is the tendency for an atom to attract electrons in order to form a chemical bond

  21. A. Ionic Bond -ionic bonds are those that have a relative electronegativity difference of more than 1.7 2.1 -the electronegativity difference is ______ in Sodium chloride and ______ in Beryllium oxide 2.0

  22. Chemical Formula Name 6. Na___O___ 5. Na___O___ 9. Na___O___ 4. Na___O___ 7. Na___O___ 8. Na___O___ 2. Be___Cl___ 1. Na___O___ 3. K___Br___ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

  23. Properties of Ionic Compounds -when ionic compounds form, they form a _____________, a ________________ _________ arrangement of _______ and ________ ions Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl crystal lattice three-dimensional geometric positive negative -the energy required to separate _______ (6.02 x 1023) of ions from each other is called the ________________, the more ________ the lattice energy, the ______ the attraction between ions one mole lattice energy negative stronger -the strength of the attraction between ions affects the compound’s __________ _________ physical properties

  24. Properties of Ionic Compounds A. Lattice Energy LiF -1032 -gather data LiCl -852 LiBr -815 LiI -761 NaF -926 NaCl -786 NaBr -752 NaI -702 KF -813 KCl -717 KBr -689 KI -649

  25. Properties of Ionic Compounds A. Lattice Energy -analyze data 0 -200 -400 F Cl -600 Br -800 I -1000 -1200 Li Na K

  26. Properties of Ionic Compounds A. Lattice Energy -draw conclusions -the lattice energy is more negative in ionic compounds that have ____________________, because the ions are ___________________ to each other smaller ionic radii more strongly attracted B. Melting and Boiling Points -gather data NaI 660 1304 KBr 734 1435 NaBr 747 1390 CaCl2 782 1600 Cal2 1100 784 NaCl 1413 801 MgO 2852 3600

  27. Properties of Ionic Compounds B. Melting and Boiling Points -draw conclusions -ionic compounds with higher lattice energies have _________melting and boiling points temps. higher -smaller ions are more ________ attracted to each other, because the _______ is closer to the _______ _________, while ions with larger positive and negative charges are more ________ attracted to each other strongly nucleus valence electrons strongly C. Electrical Conductivity -to conduct electricity, charged particles must be _________________, so ionic compounds generally do not conduct electricity as a _____, but generally do as a ______ or when ______________ _______________ free to move solid liquid dissolved in water (electrolyte)

  28. Properties of Ionic Compounds D. Hardness -the ions in ionic compounds with _______________ lattice energies are more _________ attracted to each other, so they tend to be ________ more negative strongly harder For Review 1. Rank the following ionic compounds, in order, from most negative to least negative lattice energy: RbCl, RbF, RbBr, RbI 1. RbF 2. RbCl 3. RbBr 4. RbI 2. Rank the following ionic compounds, in order, from highest to lowest melting point temperature: NaCl, MgCl2, MgO 1. MgO 2. MgCl2 3. NaCl 3. Rank the following ionic compounds, in order, from softest to hardest: Li2O, Li2S, Li2Te, Li2Se 1. Li2Te 2. Li2Se 3. Li2S 4. Li2O 4. Rank the following ionic compounds, in order, from ions most strongly to ions least strongly attracted to each other: MgF2, RbCl, CaF2, CaCl2, MgO 1. MgO 2. MgF2 3. CaF2 4. CaCl2 5. RbCl

  29. Naming Ionic Compounds 1. MgF2 ___________________ Magnesium fluoride 2. Rb2S ___________________ Rubidium sulfide 3. Ba(NO3)2 ___________________ Barium nitrate 4. (NH4)2Te ___________________ Ammonium telluride 5. (NH4)3PO4 ___________________ Ammonium phosphate 6. Na2SO4 ___________________ Sodium sulfate 7. Cu3P ___________________________________ Copper(I) phosphide or Cuprous phosphide Iron(III) hydroxide or Ferric hydroxide 8. Fe(OH)3 ________________________________ 9. Cr2(CO3)3 _______________________________________ Chromium(III) carbonate or Chromic carbonate 10. Sn(HCO3)4 __________________________________________ Tin(IV) Hydrogen carbonate or Stannic bicarbonate

  30. Metallic Bonds -like ionic compounds, metals in their ______ state form ________ structures solid lattice -each metal atom contributes its _______ _________ to a ___________ _____ of electrons, which move freely throughout the solid valence electrons delocalized sea -without its ________ _________, each metal atom forms a _________ _______ valence electrons metal cation -the attraction between the ________ _________ and the _____________ ___________ is called a _________ _____ metallic cation delocalized electrons metallic bond Properties of Metals -influenced strongly by the strength of attraction between the _______ ________ and the number of ____________ ___________ metallic cation delocalized electrons

  31. Properties of Metals A. Melting Point -since it doesn’t matter where the _________ _______ are within the _______ __________ of the metal, the cations _______ _________ easily, while still remaining in ______ _______ with each other, so ________ _______ temperatures are relatively ____ metallic cations lattice structure change position close contact melting point low -the _________ the attraction between ________ ________ and the ____ of ______________ __________, the ________ the melting point temperature, so ________ atoms tend to have _______ melting point temperatures. stronger metallic cations sea delocalized electrons higher smaller higher

  32. Properties of Metals A. Melting Point 180 Lithium 98 Sodium 64 Potassium 39 Rubidium Cesium 29 27 Francium 1278 Beryllium 660 Aluminum Calcium 839 Strontium 764 Barium 725 Radium 700

  33. Properties of Metals A. Melting Point -________ _______ temperatures are _________ by increasing the number of ________ ________ contributed to the _____ of ______________ __________. ___________ __________ like _______ and _________ contribute their ______ ________ electrons as well as their __________ __________ to the ____ of ________________ __________, __________ the melting point temperature dramatically. melting point increased valence electrons sea delocalized electrons Transition elements Copper Tungsten d orbital valence electrons sea delocalized electrons increasing Copper 1083 Tunsten 3410 Iron 1535 Chromium 1857 Silver 962

  34. Properties of Metals B. Malleability & Ductility -because particles in a metal can easily change position, they are __________, or can be __________ _____ _______ or other shapes easily malleable hammered into sheets -because particles in a metal can easily change position, they are __________, or can be __________ _____ _______ ductile drawn into wires C. Durability & Boiling Point -even though particles in a metal can easily change position, they are __________ ____________, to the ____ of __________ surrounding them, and are __________ to _______ from the metal, giving them a high ___________ and a high ________ ______ temperature as well strongly attracted sea electrons difficult remove durability boiling point

  35. Properties of Metals D. Conductivity delocalized electrons -because __________ __________ in a metal are _____ ___ _____ while keeping _________ ______ intact, the __________ move _____ from place to place easily, so metal are _____ ___________ of _____ free to move metallic bonds electrons heat good conductors heat -because __________ __________ in a metal are _____ ___ _____, they move easily as a part of an ________ ________ when an __________ __________ or ________ is applied to the metal, and the ________ ________ structure of the __________ ________ allows the __________ to flow without _________ with the ________, which allows for little __________ delocalized electrons free to move electrical current electrical potential voltage crystal lattice metallic cations electrons colliding cations resistance

  36. Properties of Metals E. Luster delocalized electrons -because ____________ ___________ are free to move, they can interact with ______, __________ and __________ ________ of _______, giving metals their _______ ________ light absorbing releasing photons light luster (shine) F. Hardness & Strength -as the number of ___________ __________ contributed to the ____ of _________ increases, the strength of the _________ _____ increases, so metals such as _______, which contribute ____ ________, are relatively _____ and _____, while metals that contribute their outer __ electrons plus their inner __ electrons such as _________, _____, or _______ are relatively _____ and _______ delocalized electrons sea electrons metallic bonds Sodium one electron soft weak s d Chromium Iron Nickel hard strong

  37. Metal Alloys -because it doesn’t matter what _________ the _________ ________ are in in a metal, it is easy to introduce other _________ __________ into the ________ structure of a metal, creating an ______, or ________ of metals position metallic cations metallic cations lattice alloy mixture -in ______________ _______, atoms of one kind of metal, like _______, are replaced with atoms of another kind of metal, like _______, to form an ______ like ________ _______, which has the properties of both metals. Pure _____ is beautiful, rare, and almost completely _________, and so is highly valuable, but it is too _____ to be of much use by itself, so it is ________ with ________ and ______ to make _________ or _________ _____, which is still beautiful, but much _______ and _________ substitutional alloys Silver Copper alloy Sterling Silver Gold unreactive soft alloyed Silver Copper 10 carat 14 carat Gold harder durable -in ______________ _______, atoms of another kind of element, like _______, are inserted into the spaces in between the cations of a metal like _____ to form _______ ______, which is _______, ________, and less ________ than _____ interstitial alloys Carbon Iron Carbon steel harder stronger ductile Iron