C6.2 – From Republic to Empire
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C6.2 – From Republic to Empire. II. Rome Becomes an Empire. A. The First Triumvirate. 60 BC - Caesar and two other generals, Gnaeus Pompey and Licinius Crassus, formed the First Triumvirate. Julius Caesar 100 - 44 BC. Gnaeus Pompey 106 - 48 BC. Licinius Crassus 115 BC – 53 BC.

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A the first triumvirate
A. The First Triumvirate

60 BC - Caesar and two other generals,

Gnaeus Pompey and Licinius Crassus, formed

the First Triumvirate

Julius Caesar 100 - 44 BC

Gnaeus Pompey 106 - 48 BC

Licinius Crassus 115 BC – 53 BC

A the first triumvirate1
A. The First Triumvirate

Crassus died; Caesar defeated Pompey in a

civil war; named dictator for life in 44 BC

Julius Caesar and the Crossing of the Rubicon

The period from 44bc 28bc
The Period from 44BC- 28bc

Formation and breakdown of the Second Triumvirate; power vacuum left by Caesar’s death, candidates for power, Senate response, fate of the assassins

Role of Significant individuals; Octavian , Antony, Cicero, Cleopatra, Fulvia and Octavia

C6 2 from republic to empire

  • Landless Roman Peasants

  • Served in the armies that

  • had won an empire

  • Wanted farmland and a minimum

  • standard of living

  • Italian Allies

  • Served in the armies that

  • had won an empire

  • Wanted citizenship and equal

  • Treatment

  • Senate

  • - Intense rivalries

  • Jealously protected

  • privileges and power

  • Did not address needs for

  • reform

  • Roman Plebs

  • Laborers and poor of the capital

  • Access to grain and bread at

  • affordable prices

  • Equites

  • Wealthy and distinguished non-senators

  • Wanted honors and recognition and did

  • not want senators to look down on them

The power vacuum
The Power Vacuum

The legacy of Julius Caesar’s death was the political vacuum that was left after the Ides of March.

Caesar’s series of dictatorships and the many titles and honors granted by the Senate had effectively dismantled the mechanism of government. Free elections had not been held since 49BC

Whoever was to fill the vacuum would need wealth and a loyal army.

C6 2 from republic to empire
Octavian and AntonyHeirs apparent?As individuals what do they have and what do they lack to take up the mantle of Caesar?


Sources of power


Patrician birth


Loyal army




  • In possession of CaesarS will

  • Consul for 44BC

  • Loyalty of veterans

  • From the Civil War

B the second triumvirate
B. The Second Triumvirate

43 BC - Octavian, Marc Antony, and Lepidus

seized power; formed the Second Triumvirate

Marc Antony 83 BC – 30 BC

Lepidus 90 BC - 13 BC

Octavian 63 BC - AD 14

B the second triumvirate1
B. The Second Triumvirate

Lepidus forced out; Antony and Octavian

each governed half the empire

B the second triumvirate2
B. The Second Triumvirate

31 BC - Civil war between Octavian and Antony;

Octavian defeated Antony and Egypt’s Cleopatra

The Battle of Actium

B the second triumvirate3
B. The Second Triumvirate

Cleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian

controlled Rome; republic ended, beginning a

new period in Roman history

Antony and Cleopatra

C from octavian to augustus
C. From Octavian to Augustus

Octavian called himself princeps, government

called Principate; new political order emerged –

the empire

Augustus (63 B.C. – AD 14)

First Roman Emperor

(27 BC - AD 14)

“He subjected the whole wide earth to the rule of the Roman people”

C from octavian to augustus1
C. From Octavian to Augustus

27 BC - Senate gave Octavian title of Augustus,

“the revered one”

Birth name:

Gaius Octavius Thurinus

Name as Emperor:

Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus

D the augustan age
D. The Augustan Age

Ruled 40 years, power divided between him

and Senate; conquests expanded the empire

and brought peace – Pax Romana

D the augustan age1
D. The Augustan Age

Life in Rome improved; period of cultural

creativity, greatest writers in Roman history –

Horace, Ovid, Livy, and Virgil

E the emperors
E. The Emperors

AD 14 - Augustus died; empire ruled by

Caesar’s relatives next 54 years – the Julio-

Claudian Emperors

E the emperors1
E. The Emperors

Abilities varied: Tiberius a good soldier and

ruler; Caligula brutal, mentally unstable; Nero,

last Julio-Claudian, committed suicide in AD 68

Nero (54-68 A.D.)

Caligula (37 to 41)

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

E the emperors2
E. The Emperors

After Nero, civil wars raged in Rome; four

military leaders ruled in AD 69; last was


Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus

(AD 9 – AD 79

E the emperors3
E. The Emperors

69 to 96 AD - Vespasian re-established order;

stability returned under the Flavians - Vespasian

and his two sons

The Flavian family, Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, depicted in The Triumph of Titus

E the emperors4
E. The Emperors

AD 96: reign of the Good Emperors began – five

rulers who governed Rome almost a century

The Five Good Emperors - Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius

E the emperors5
E. The Emperors

Empire grew under the Good Emperors;

reached limits of expansion under Trajan

Aureus issued by Trajan to celebrate the conquest of Parthia

E the emperors6
E. The Emperors

Hadrian thought empire too large, withdrew from

the east; built defensive fortifications as guard

against invasions

Hadrian's Wall in northern England

A government
A. Government

Government strongest unifying force in empire:

maintained order, enforced laws, defended


A government1
A. Government

Empire divided into provinces ruled by

governors appointed and monitored by Rome

B laws trade transportation
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation

Law unified the empire; specified crimes and

penalties; applied to everyone in empire - the

“Rule of Law”

B laws trade transportation1
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation

Agriculture remained primary occupation;

tenant farmers began replacing slaves on large


B laws trade transportation2
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation

Manufacturing increased; produced everything

from cheap pottery to world’s finest goods

Ancient Roman drinking vessels, bowls and jars

Ancient glassware from the Roman era

B laws trade transportation3
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation

Imported grain, meat, raw materials from

provinces; Rome and Alexandria became

commercial centers

B laws trade transportation4
B. Laws, Trade, Transportation

Commercial activity possible because of

empire’s location and extensive (about 50,000

mile) road network