Introduction of Confucianism (儒家) 陳明德 Minder Chen, Ph.D. Professor of MIS Martin V. Smith School of Business and Economics CSU Channel Islands Minder.Chen@csuci.edu or firstname.lastname@example.org
Basic Assumptions • Where there are people, there is politics and management. • Nothing prepared you for politics or business. • Use the wisdom from sages in the past to stimulate our thoughts and wisdom. • Management and leadership are applicable almost everything in the world. • Your management philosophies and leadership styles are partially influenced by Chinese culture and Confucianism has dominated Chines cultures for centuries.
愛新覺羅·毓鋆Quotes • 以古人之智慧， 啟發今人之智慧。 • 勘破世情驚破膽,萬般不與政事同。 • 中國學問都是治國平天下的藥方。 • 書是死的，腦子是活的，須深入會用。(〈朱子治家格言〉曰:「子孫雖愚,經書不可不讀。」) • 別人問我：「你是什麼學派的？」我說：「我是問心學派。」任何事，先問自己的心有愧無愧？有愧，就不要去做。 • 大人就是無我，無我、無私就是「公」(背私為公)，故曰「大道之行，天下為公」故又曰「大人者，不失其赤子之心。」
Hundred Schools of Thought 諸子百家 • Confucianism (儒家) • Taoism (道家) • Mohism (墨家) • Legalism (法家) • School of the Military (兵家) • School of Yin-yang (陰陽家) • The School of Diplomacy or School of Vertical and Horizontal [Alliances] (縱橫家) • Logicians (名家) • The Miscellaneous School (雜家) • Agriculturalism (農家) • The School of Novelists (Storytelling) (小說家) Buddhism and Zen (佛學與禪宗)
Confucius • 551 ~ 479 B.C. • 孔子 • 孔夫子 • 大成至聖先師 • 萬世師表
Confucian Canon (儒家經典) • The Four Books and Five Classics (四書五經 Sìshū Wŭjīng) • The Five Classics: • The Book of Songs (Odes) • The Book of History (Official documents) • 《易經》 The Book of Changes • The Book of Rites • The Spring and Autumn Annals (Chronicle - records of history events - of Lu) • The Four Books: • The Great Learning (Higher Education) • The Doctrine of the Mean (Central Harmony) • The Analects of Confucius (Dialog of Confucius and his disciples) • Mencius
Confucius • Confucius (551–479 BC) • Noble descent in the state of Lu • Imperial rule of Chou dynasty was breaking down • Great admirer of the Duke of Chou • Taught a moral philosophy with people as the centerpiece. • Emphasis on learning, thinking, and doing. • The central concept of his philosophy is benevolence (“ren” 仁 “zhong shu”忠恕) • Politics (management) is only an extension of morals and personal cultivation.
The Analects of Confucius • Analects: means “selected miscellaneous written passage”. • It is a collection of Confucius’ saying, compiled by his disciples & they reflect the extent to which Confucius held up a moral ideal for all the people. • Together they express a philosophy, or a moral code, by which Confucius, one of the most humane thinkers of all time, believed everyone should live and uphold the ideals of wisdom, self-knowledge, courage, and love of other people. • He argued that the pursuit of virtue should be every individual's supreme goal. And, while following the Way, or the truth, might not result in immediate or material gain, Confucius showed that it could nevertheless bring its own powerful and lasting spiritual rewards.
《論語 - The Analects》 • 顏淵 • 仲弓問仁。子曰：「出門如見大賓，使民如承大祭。己所不欲，勿施於人。在邦無怨，在家無怨。」仲弓曰：「雍雖不敏，請事斯語矣。」 • Zhong Gong asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, “When you go out you always prepare yourself as if you are going to receive important guests. Employ the people as if you were residing an important sacrifice. Do not impose on others what you yourself do not desire. As the result, you will be free from any complaints in the country and in the family." Zhong Gong said, "Though I am not very smart, I will try my best according to what you have said. "
《論語 - The Analects》 • 衛靈公 • 子貢問曰：「有一言而可以終身行之者乎？」子曰：「其恕乎！己所不欲，勿施於人。」 • Zi Gong asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethic_of_reciprocity
Golden Rules • “Look into your own heart, discover what it is that gives you pain and then refuse, under any circumstance whatsoever, to inflict that pain on anybody else.” — Karen Armstrong • http://www.ted.com/talks/karen_armstrong_let_s_revive_the_golden_rule.html?quote=555
Altruism 利他主義 • Altruism, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altruism
Key Concepts in the Analects • Ren仁(benevolence, humanity, moral sense, perfect virtual, charity, kindness, humaneness) • JunZi 君子(the superior man, gentleman, prince) • Zheng 政 (politics, governing, management) • Xiao 孝 (filial piety, be a good son or daughter) • Zhong忠(loyalty忠心, do your best盡己之謂忠) • Shu恕 (reciprocity, empathy, charity) • Li 禮(propriety, ritual, rite, proper conduct, social order, manner, culture) • Xin 信(trust信認, honesty誠信) Yi 義(Righteousness) • Tian天 (heaven) • ZhongYong中庸 (doctrine of the mean, central harmony) • Xing 性 (human nature, consciousness) • ZhengMing 正名(naming things correctly)
Translation of Analects • Ku Hung Ming (辜鴻銘), The Discourses and Sayings of Confucius, 1898. • James Legge’s (理雅各) translation http://ctext.org/analects • William Edward Soothill, The Analects of Confucius, 1910. • Lionel Giles(翟林奈), The Sayings of Confucius, 1910. • Lin Yu-Tang(林語堂), The Wisdom of Confucius, 1938. (Chapter V: Aphorisms of Confucius) • D. C. Lau(劉殿爵), Confucius: The Analects, Penguin Classics, Penguin Books, 1979.
Examine Yourself to Free From Worries and Fears [12.4]司馬牛問「君子」。子曰：「君子不憂不懼。」 曰：「不憂不懼，斯謂之君子矣乎？」子曰：「內省不疚，夫何憂何懼？」 • Su-ma Niu asked about the how to be a virtuous person. gentleman. The Master said, “A virtuous person is free from worries and fears.” “In that case, can a man be said to be a virtuous person simply because he is free from worries and fears?” The Master said, “If, on examining oneself, a person finds nothing to reproach himself for, what worries and fears can he have?” • 內省不疚 問心無愧 Moral compass • 道德 Morality • 良知 Conscience • 心底無私天地寬(陶鑄)
Know People [12.22]樊遲問仁。子曰：「愛人。」 問知(智)。子曰：「知人。」樊遲未達。 子曰：「舉直錯諸枉，能使枉者直。」… Fan Ch'ih asked about benevolence. The Master said, “Love people.” He asked about wisdom. The Master said, “Know people.” Fan Ch'ih failed to grasp his meaning. The Master said, “Promote the straight and put them in charge of the crooked. This can make the crooked straight.”
[11.22 因材施教] 子路問：「聞斯行諸？」子曰：「有父兄在，如之何其聞斯行之？」冉有問：「聞斯行諸？」子曰：「聞斯行之。」公西華曰：「由也問聞斯行諸，子曰『有父兄在』；求也問聞斯行諸，子曰『聞斯行之』。赤也惑，敢問。」子曰：「求也退，故進之；由也兼人，故退之。」 • [teaching students based on their characters] Zi Lu asked “Should one immediately put into practice what one has heard?” The Master said, "As your father and elder brothers are still alive, you are hardly in a position immediately to put into practice what you have heard?" Ran Yu asked the same question “Should one immediately put into practice what one has heard?” The Master answered, “Yes, you should immediately put into practice what you have heard." The third student, Gong Xi Hua said, " Zi Lu asked whether he should put immediately into practice what one has heard, and you said, “There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted.” Qiu asked whether he should immediately put into practice what he has heard, and you said, ‘Put it immediately into practice.' I am confused, and venture to ask you for an explanation." The Master said, "Qiu is very passive; therefore I urged him to move forward. Yu (Zi Lu) is too aggressive and daring; therefore I tried to hold him back."
因材施教 (from a student) SHUMBA GL12 PT3 G13 遇事轻率：抑制 请教父兄，再做 子路 子路 想到一个好的方案，是否可以立即去做？ 孔子 遇事畏缩：鼓励 马上做 冉有 冉有 甲：具备做某事的能力 可以做某事 岗前、在岗培训 乙：不具备做某事的能力 可以做另一件事 制程 装配 测试 包装 难易 包装 装配 测试 ＜ ＜ 有经验的作业员 无经验的作业员 2013 Summer 第拾叁组 张永胜
The Analects [1.16] 子曰：「不患人之不己知，患不知人也。」 The Master said, “It is not the failures of others to appreciate your abilities that should trouble you, but rather your failure to appreciate theirs.” (You should be worried about not recognizing other people’s virtue and talent.) 《論語‧憲問》子曰：「不患人之不己知，患其不能也。」 The Master said, “I am not concerned about not knowing by others, but I am worried I don’t have the right abilities (to be known).
The Last Section of the Last Chapter in the Analects • 《論語‧堯曰》[20.3] 子曰：「不知命，無以為君子也。不知禮，無以立也。不知言，無以知人也。」 • [20.3] Confucius said, “ • Without understanding your destiny (purpose of life); one cannot become a virtuous person. • Without knowing the culture and social protocols, one cannot establish (conduct) oneself in the society. • Without knowing what a person is saying (know what their real intentions based on what have been said), one cannot assess him correctly.”
Central Harmony 中庸 天命之謂性，率性之謂道，修道之謂教。 道也者，不可須臾離也。可離，非道也。 是故君子戒慎乎其所不睹，恐懼乎其所不聞。 莫見乎隱，莫顯乎微，故君子慎其獨也。 喜怒哀樂之未發，謂之中； 發而皆中節，謂之和。 中也者，天下之大本也； 和也者，天下之達道也。 致中和，天地位焉， 萬物育焉。 (link)
English Translation What Heaven has conferred is called The Nature; an accordance with this nature is called The Path of duty; the regulation of this path is called Instruction. The path may not be left for an instant. If it could be left, it would not be the path. On this account, the superior man does not wait till he sees things, to be cautious, nor till he hears things, to be apprehensive. There is nothing more visible than what is secret, and nothing more manifest than what is minute. Therefore the superior man is watchful over himself, when he is alone. While there are no stirrings of pleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy, the mind may be said to be in the state of Equilibrium. When those feelings have been stirred, and they act in their due degree, there ensues what may be called the state of Harmony. This Equilibrium is the great root from which grow all the human actings in the world, and this Harmony is the universal path which they all should pursue. Let the states of equilibrium and harmony exist in perfection, and a happy order will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish.
Great Learning 大學 大學之道，在明明德，在親民，在止於至善。 知止而後有定，定而後能靜，靜而後能安， 安而後能慮，慮而後能得。 物有本末，事有終始，知所先後，則近道矣。 Translation • The Great Learning is the pathway of learning to be a great person. The path to be a great person consists of three basic tenets which we have to bear in mind all the time: • Enlighten your own bright human nature, • Build a close relationship with other people to renew their spirits and virtues, and • Work relentlessly towards the acme’s goal of perfection and kindness.
Translations (continued) • Knowing the purpose of one’s life, a person can determine the goals of his pursuit; • Once the goals are set, he can reach a state of tranquility; • When tranquility of the mind is reached, he feels calm and at ease with his surroundings; • When he attains calmness, he can be very thoughtful and insightful in deliberation; • With careful deliberation, he can easily devise a path to achieve his goals. • Things, just like trees, have their root and their branches. Affairs have their ends and proper beginnings. Knowing the precedence among various tasks and their priority will lead us towards Tao as taught in the Great Learning.
內聖外王的功夫與次第 格物致知誠意正心 修身齊家治國平天下 讀書學習是領導幹部加強黨性修養、堅定理想信念、提升精神境界的壹個重要途徑。我們國家歷來講究讀書修身、從政立德。傳統文化中，讀書、修身、立德，不僅是立身之本，更是從政之基。古人講，治天下者先治己，治己者先治心。治心養性，壹個直接、有效的方法就是讀書。 來源: link
禮運大同篇 • 大道之行也，天下為公；選賢與能，講信修睦； • 故人不獨親其親，不獨子其子； • 使老有所終，壯有所用，幼有所長； • 鰥寡孤獨廢疾者，皆有所養； • 男有分，女有歸； • 貨惡其棄於地也，不必藏於己； • 力惡其不出於身也，不必為己； • 是故謀閉而不興，盜竊亂賊而不作， • 故外戶而不閉，是謂大同。 • 孔子（西元前 551~479 年）《禮記卷七，禮運第九》
Confucius’ Ideal of a Commonwealth State* – a Great Utopia • When the Great Dao (Tao, perfect order) prevails, the world is like a Commonwealth State shared by all, not a dictatorship. Virtuous, worthy, wise and capable people are chosen as leaders. • Honesty and trust are promoted, and good neighborliness cultivated. • All people respect and love their own parents and children, as well as the parents and children of others. The aged are cared for until death; adults are employed in jobs that make full use of their abilities; and children are nourished, educated, and fostered. • Widows and widowers, orphans and the old without children, the disabled and the diseased are all well taken care of. Every man and woman has an appropriate role to play in society and in the family. They hate to see resources lying idle or cast away, yet they do not necessarily keep them for themselves. • They hate not to make use of their abilities, yet they do not necessarily work for their own self-interest. Thus intrigues and conspiracies do not arise, and thievery and robbery do not occur; herefore doors need never be locked. • This is the ideal world – a perfect world of equality, fraternity, harmony, welfare, and justice. This is the world called “Da-Tong (Dah-Torng)”. • Li-Yun-Da-Tong (Li-Yun-Dah-Torng) Section, the Record of Rites, Book 9, by Confucius (BC551~479) • * This is the state “of the people, by the people, and for the people”
Mencius:萬物皆備於我矣 孟子曰：「 萬物皆備於我矣。 反身而誠，樂莫大焉。 強恕而行，求仁莫近焉。」 《孟子•盡心篇》 Mencius said, “All things are already complete inside us. There is no greater delight than to be conscious of sincerity on self-examination. If one force oneself to act according to the law of reciprocity, nothing can be closer than this in achieving benevolent.”
《論語》學而時習之 • The Analects Chapter 1 Section 1 [1.1] [Chinese Text] • 子曰：「學而時習之，不亦說乎？有朋自遠方來，不亦樂乎？人不知而不慍，不亦君子乎？」 • Confucius said, “It is indeed a pleasure to learn, and to apply acquired knowledge into practice when opportunities arise. It is even a greater joy to have friends who have common interests to come from afar to visit so that we can share experiences and knowledge with each other. A true gentleman does not get upset when people do not recognize his abilities or contributions.”
Translator’s Note 學(xué) is learning. It has the meaning of both knowing and doing. In Analects, Confucius considers the moral conducts of a person is more important than his knowledge. Jūn Zĭ (君子) has been translated as a superior man, a gentleman, or a wise man. In Analects the term has been used to refer to a person with high moral standard and in few occasion it specifically referred to people who were from a noble family (nobles). At Confucius time, nobles could become commoners (i.e., common people or the masses) after several generations. At the same time, commoners through education and their own abilities could serve in the public sectors and became nobles. I use the term gentleman or gentlemen in a gender neutral way. It includes both ladies and gentlemen. http://www.purpleculture.net/chinese-pinyin-converter/ this tool is used for creating PinYin for Chinese characters. I choice using tone mark for the four tones.
Learning and Knowledge Management This section covers three major principles in knowledge management practices in organizations: Encourage learning and practicing, form communities of practices, and willing to share knowledge and experience. Sharing knowledge and experience with others requires us taking time to summarize lessons learned in an organized fashion. People learned from us may not credit us for what they have learned. Therefore, people in organizations are less interested in sharing what they know. The critical success factors for implementing knowledge management system in an organization are: proper tracking people’s contribution and providing incentives for people to share. People who are willing to share without expecting anything back will benefit themselves. First, they have to go through a deep level thinking of what they know when sharing and such sharing process is a higher level of learning. Second, once you share what you know with others, you feel that you are not any better than your colleagues such that it will force you to learn more new knowledge and skills.
絕知此事要躬行 讀書學習客觀上是一個去粗取精、去偽存真的過程，必須聯繫實際，知行合一，通過理論的指導、利用知識的積累，來洞察客觀事物發展的規律。古人講，“紙上得來終覺淺，絕知此事要躬行”、 “ 耳聞之不如目見之， 目見之不如足踐之”， 說的就是這個道理。毛澤東同志說，讀書是學習，使用也是學習，而且是更重要的學習，講的也是同樣的道理。大凡有作為者，都註重讀書與運用的結合，而不是讀死書、死讀書。 ….運用理論和知識解決實際問題的能力強不強。…在以下三個方面努力很重要。壹是要勇於實踐，把知識轉化為能力。知識向能力的轉化，媒介就是實踐。領導幹部勇於實踐，就要敢於面對實踐中的熱點、難點問題，敢於探索新的實踐領域， … (link) 冬夜讀書示子聿 (yù） 古人學問無遺力， 少壯工夫老始成。 紙上得來終覺淺， 絕知此事要躬行。 --（南宋）陸遊
Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) • Creating - designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making • Evaluating - Checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring • Analyzing - Comparing, organizing, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating • Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing • Understanding - Interpreting, Summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying • Remembering - Recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)
Cognitive Domain of Learning Taxonomy • Categories in the cognitive domain of the revised Bloom's taxonomy Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom's_taxonomy