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Pest management in storage. Joe Rickman and Martin Gummert, Agricultural Engineering, International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. Pest of stored grains. Insects Pathogens (fungi) Rodents Birds. Ideal Conditions for pest. Environment Conditions Temperature 20 - 40 o C

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pest management in storage

Pest management in storage

Joe Rickman and Martin Gummert,

Agricultural Engineering,

International Rice Research Institute, Philippines

pest of stored grains
Pest of stored grains
  • Insects
  • Pathogens (fungi)
  • Rodents
  • Birds
ideal conditions for pest
Ideal Conditions for pest

Environment Conditions

  • Temperature 20 - 40oC
  • Relative humidity 60-70%

Mixing grain lots

  • old and new

Time

  • Longer storage >no insects
common post harvest insects
Common Post harvest insects
  • Lesser grain borer(Rhzopertha dominica),
  • Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae),
  • Angoumois grain moth(Sitotroga cerealella),
  • Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)

Lifecycle

  • Beetles 15-18 days
  • Moths 28 - 35 days
harvesting and drying
Harvesting and drying
  • Grain moisture content (12-14%)
  • Minimize cracked and broken grain during processing
  • Don’t mix old and new grain
cleaning and disinfesting the storage system
Cleaning and disinfesting the storage system
  • Clean storage - containers, structures, equipment and bags
  • May need to treat with insecticide
    • Malathion (50EC) at 5ml/20l of water @20ml/m2,
    • Fenitrothion (50EC) at 5ml/l water @20ml/m2,
    • Deltamethrin (2.5% WP) at 1.5g/l water @20ml/m2
treat infected grain
Treat infected grain

Grain treatment

  • Insecticide- malathion
  • Fumigation
    • phosphine,
    • carbon dioxide

Physical

  • Heat < 15, >55 (15mins)
  • Impact
    • pneumatic conveyers
  • Diatomaceous earth
    • dehydration
live insect counts insects kg

Months

Open Storage

(bags)

Hermetic (5 ton)

Hermetic (small)

Cold room

Air conditioner

0

3.2

8.8

7.4

8.4

3

234

0

1.4

0

1.6

6

114

0.4

1.6

0

3.0

9

54.4

0.4

1.2

0

3.4

12

27.2

2.2

1.2

0

9.0

Live Insect Counts (Insects/ kg)

8.4

bag dipping live insects kg

Days

Control

Deltamethrin

(bag dipped)

Phosphine Tablet

0

10

10

7.6

25

30

5

0

53

72

1

0

98

86

1

3.6

125

48

0

11

159

6

0

28.6

Bag dipping (Live Insects/kg)
slide12
Rats

Species

  • Black rat or House rat (Rattus rattus)
  • Norway rat or Common rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • House mouse (Mus musculus)

Damage

  • Feed on grain
    • rats 25 gm of food per day,
    • mice 3-4 gm per day
  • Spoilage and contamination of grain
  • Damage materials –tarpaulins, bags, electric cables
rat management
Rat management
  • Keep the store clean-remove any spilt grain
  • Store bags in tidy stacks set up on pallets,
  • Store any empty or old bags and fumigation sheets on pallets, and if possible in separate stores!
  • Keep the store free of rubbish Bum or bury it!
  • Keep the area surrounding the store free of tall weeds
  • Keep the area in the vicinity of the store free of any stagnant water
fungi
Fungi

Most common :

  • Aspergillus and Penicillium
  • Grain spoilage and mycotoxins (poisonous)

Determined by:

  • Moisture content of the stored grain
  • Temperature
  • Condition of the grain going into storage
  • Length of time the is grain stored and
  • Amount of insect and mite activity in the grain.
fungi15
Fungi

Control

  • Moisture content (12-14%)
  • Heat
    • dry heat at 65oC for 6 days
    • hot water treatment at 52-55oC
  • Fungicides
    • Dithane M-45 and Benlate at 3 grams kg-1.
storage hygiene
Storage Hygiene
  • Keep storage areas clean.
  • Clean storage rooms after they are emptied
  • Placing rat-traps and barriers in drying and storage areas. Cats deter and help control rats and mice
  • Inspect storage room regularly to keep it vermin proof.
  • Inspect the stored seeds once a week for signs of insect infestation.
priorities management options
Priorities Management Options
  • Good hygiene -cleanliness in store, clean bags
  • Hermetic storage
  • Bag dipping
  • Phosphine tablets
  • Fumigation-last resort