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Pest Management. Definition and History. 10 000 Species of Insects damaging world food plants. 30 000 species of weeds. 100 000 diseases. US$ 500 BILLION. 1000 species of nematodes. 30 000 species of weeds. 100 000 diseases. 13.2 %. 42.1% lost. 13.3 %. 1000 species of nematodes.

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pest management

Pest Management

Definition and History

slide6

30 000 species of weeds

100 000 diseases

US$ 500 BILLION

1000 species of nematodes

slide7

30 000 species of weeds

100 000 diseases

13.2 %

42.1% lost

13.3 %

1000 species of nematodes

15.6 %

pest management history
Pest management History
  • Era of traditional approaches (ancient-1938)
  • Era of pesticides (1939-1962)
  • Era of integrated pest management (1963-now)
era of pesticides
Era of pesticides

DDT discovered

In 1939

2,4-D discovered

In 1939

Paul Muller

(Nobel Prize 1948)

era of pesticides1
Era of pesticides

The ‘green revolution’

era of pesticides2
At least 3 million workers poisoned each year

20 000 deaths per year

Teratogenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects

Era of pesticides
era of pesticides4
Era of pesticides

~100% of us have some insecticide residue in our bodies

era of ipm
Era of IPM

1993: US government sets goal of 75% of crop

land under IPM by 2000.

2002: 70% of US acreage under

some level of IPM

era of ipm2

Pesticide use

Rice Production

Era of IPM

Rice production

Pesticide use

1984 1986 1988 1990

ipm concept 1972
IPM concept (1972)
  • Integrated control.
  • Pest management and Economic injury level.
  • Environmental protection
ipm definition
IPM Definition

IPM is a sustainable approach that combines the use of prevention, avoidance, monitoring and suppression strategies in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks.

(US Department of Agriculture, 1998).

constrains in ipm implementation
Constrains in IPM Implementation
  • Institutional constrains
  • Informational constrains
  • Sociological constrains
  • Economic constrains
  • Political constrains
strategies for ipm implementation
Strategies for IPM implementation
  • Farmer participation
  • Government support
  • Legislative measures
  • Institutional infrastructure
  • Awareness
cotton ipm a case from peru
Cotton IPM:A case from Peru
  • Use of insecticides after 2nd WW.
  • Insecticide resistance in the 1950s.
  • Secondary pests.
  • Reduction of natural enemies.
  • IPM implementation rescued cotton.
  • Currently pest problems are returning due to relaxed IPM