Emerging Diseases BIOL 119 Spring 2011 Filoviruses
Marburg • 1967 • Laboratory animals • Mystery disease • 31 infected • Terrifying threat Filovirus
Nzara • June-August 1976 • Different strains of Ebola (Ebola Zaire/Ebola Sudan) • 151/284
Yambuku Death Toll 280/318 EBO-Z surfaced shortly after the first Ebola outbreak in Sudan and killed 280 of the 318 people it infected. On September 1, 1976, four days after returning from a tour of northern Zaire, the index case, a 44 year-old male teacher at the Mission School, sought medical intervention for a febrile illness he thought to be malaria. He received a parenteral injection of chloroquine (an anti-malaria drug) from Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). YMH did not use disposable needles or sterilize the needles between uses. Parenteral injection was the primary mode of administering nearly all medicines, and Ebola-Zaire (EBO-Z) was quickly disseminated into the surrounding villages serviced by YMH. After 11 of its 17 staff members fell ill with EHF, YMH closed on September 30, 1976, 29 days after the index case received his injection of chloroquine. The WHO International Commission was formed on October 18th, and research teams were mobilized on October 30th. The last case of EBO-Z died on November 5, 1976. Transmission of Ebola during this outbreak occurred mainly through the use of contaminated needles to administer medicine.
Reston, 1989 Philippine animals Airborne Lethal in monkeys but mild in humans
Kikwit-1995 Death toll = 244/315