American Shakespeare Center. American Shakespeare Center. Stewardship, Innovation & Social Entrepreneurship MBA 658 David Kirby Kevin Humphries Hans Hseih. AUGUST 6, 2009. American Shakespeare Center. Facts
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& Social Entrepreneurship
AUGUST 6, 2009
Sources: http //mbc.edu/shakespeare/partnership.asp
(Smith, A., 2009)
Making Shakespeare enjoyable for all
The American Shakespeare Center has the potential to be a great organization – one that delivers superior performance and makes a distinctive impact over a long period
(Collins, J. 2005)
Application through :
Stewardship, Innovation, Social Entrepreneurship
holding something in trust for another and the careful and responsible management of something entrusted to one’s care.
(Smith, M. 2000)
Five Principles of Stewardship:
(Smith, A. 2009)
Stewardship of the Stakeholders
(Smith, M. 2000)
(Esty, D., Winston, A., 2006)
Mary Baldwin College
Board of Directors
Other Shakespeare Centres
Lines indicate relationships (solid = strong, dotted = weak, none = none).
Size equals relative size of the client.
Color equals the client feeling about the product or service (green = very good, red = good, purple = some good/some bad)
Stewardship of the Mission
World's only authentic reconstruction of Shakespeare's indoor theatre
Located in downtown Staunton, just blocks from the Mary Baldwin campus
Serves as theater,classroom and laboratory
Stewardship of the Mission
Stewardship of Capacity Building
American Shakespeare Center
Changing the "rules of the game"
ASC influences Staunton
It drives economic development
Arts and culture & Globe development
Developing a sustainable cultureand brand identity. Employer of choice.
ASC & community share a distinctive brand
Meeting unmet social needs
Stewardship of stakeholders for organizational and community development
Creating product differentiation
The mission focus - Only Blackfriars Playhouse reproduction in the world
Reducing costs (energy, waste)
Capacity building through management of resources
Reducing compliance risks
Stay ahead of the curve by engaging stakeholders – esp. on the government level
*Laszlo, Chris (2008).
Shake the “fear” off Shakespeare
Downtown Arts and Culture District
- Demonstrates 2nd Order Innovation
- Constituents with similar interest, not necessarily in Shakespeare
Board of Directors
Value and Credibility
The resource engine is
actually a hybrid….
Part earned income
Part contributed support
Both provide ASC with
Community interaction, vignettes, local promotion
Raise ticket prices (NEA says attendance not tied to price)
Distribute more complimentary and discount tickets
More “plain English” Shakespeare
Another non-Shakespeare production; e.g. “1776” or related historical production on Independence Day
More efficient facility schedule to allow for fee based outside use
Consider options to generate revenue at Globe site
Since 2003, attendance at spoken theater events nationwide has declined by 16%
There are twice as many nonprofit theaters today as there were in 1990
Source: NEA, 2008
In remarkable contrast
to industry trends,
ASC’s earned income
INCREASED BY 50%
from $1.3 million
to over $2.1 million.
An Opportunity for Innovation!
ASC has been challenged on the bottom line.
“Look elsewhere from the problem to find the solution” (Ackoff, 2008)
ASC bucks the industry trend for earned income.
With 16% less relative contributed support that its peers, ASC may have an opportunity
Perhaps some ways to increase, but not the obvious solution once perceived.
ASC has had fundraising success, but it’s fundraising efforts have been crisis generated, not regenerated.
Formal fundraising mechanism needed
Build emotional connection with stakeholders
Employ diverse mix of appeals
Healthy attendance record and trend + Local constituent demographics = Capacity for sustainable contributed support
Grants and contributions are a source of strength because they connect the organization and its stakeholders
Annual Giving Program
Giving levels with quid pro quo rewards
Number of subscriptions and seat location improve as donors move through giving levels
Grants need to be a part of fundraising mechanism
Invest in mitigating cyclical restrictions
NEA reports that its funding has been a catalyst for attracting sizeable contributions from other sources
Planned Giving Program
Cultivates larger estate and trust gifts
Fits with Stewardship goal of a better connection with stakeholders
Connected to core program and mission
Takes advantage of ASC’s fundraising capacity relative to industry peers (NEA, 2008)
Helps to balance ASC’s overall revenue mix
Has potential to be a turning flywheel (Collins, 2005)
Large gifts could provide source of capital to reduce or eliminate debt
What does will it require of ASC?
Inter-dependent on local culture
Regenerating fundraising program
Diverse revenue generating stream
Succession planned, not crisis saved
Smith, A. 2009
Sticking with the mission is an appropriate strategy
Connection with stakeholders on a deeper level will yield results; board diversification is a good place to start
The level of earned income is not the problem
A strong, programmatic fundraising mechanism could eliminate the need for crisis appeals
So, for the board, management and staff of ASC, we think our findings and recommendations are……..
Ackoff, R. (2008, December 12). YouTube. Message posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MBrEJjT-dWU&feature=related
Collins, Jim. (2005). Good to great and the social sectors. New York:Harper Collins.
Drucker, Peter. (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship: Practice and principles. New York: Harper & Row.
Edwards, Michael. (2008). Just another emperor? The myths and realities of philanthrocapitalism. New York: The Young Foundation.
Emery, F.E. and Trist, E.L. (1965). “The causal texture of organizational environments.” Human Relations, Vol. 18, No. 1, 21-32. Sage Publications.
Esty, Daniel and Winston, Andrew. (2009). Green to Gold: How smart companies use environmental strategy to innovate, create value, and build competitive advantage. Hoboken: John Wiley.
Guidestar. (n.d.). Non Profit report section. Retrieved August 1, 2009, from http://www2.guidestar.org/ReportNonProfit.aspx?ein=54-487955&Mode=NonGx&lid=531476&dl=True
Laszlo, Chris. (2008). Sustainable value: How the world’s leading companies are doing well by doing good. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
National Endowment for the Arts. (2008). “All America’s a Stage: Growth and Challenges in Nonprofit Theater”. www.arts.gov
National Endowment for the Arts. (2009). All America's a stage. Retrieved July 27, 2009, from http://arts.endow.gov/research/TheaterBrochure12-08.pdf
Oster, S., Massarsky C., and Beinhacker S., (eds.) (2004). Generating and sustaining nonprofit earned income. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Smith, Anthony. (2009). Stewardship design principles. Presented at Global Forum 2009 on Business as an Agent of World Benefit, UN Social Compact and Case Western University, Cleveland, OH. June 2-5, 2009.
Smith, Marilyn. (2000). Steward-leadership in the public sector. Presented at 23rd Annual Conference on Public Administration Teaching. Fort Lauderdale, FL.