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American Shakespeare Center. American Shakespeare Center. Stewardship, Innovation & Social Entrepreneurship MBA 658 David Kirby Kevin Humphries Hans Hseih. AUGUST 6, 2009. American Shakespeare Center. Facts

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Stewardship, Innovation

& Social Entrepreneurship

MBA 658

David Kirby

Kevin Humphries

Hans Hseih

AUGUST 6, 2009

slide3

AmericanShakespeareCenter

Facts

  • Founded in 1988 - Home company of the Blackfriars Playhouse
  • Over 360 performances per year, over 50,000 visitors, and 12,000 students and teachers.
  • America's most traveled Shakespeare company: 47 states and 5 countries to date
  • Center for Renaissance and Shakespearean Staging (NEH, 1995)
  • Winner: VFH Award for the Advancement of Literature in Virginia
  • $4.5 million investment in Blackfriars; $2.8 million annual budget; stimulated $20 million to restore Stonewall Jackson Hotel; and numerous other public/private investments.

Sources: http //mbc.edu/shakespeare/partnership.asp

(Smith, A., 2009)

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Vision

Making Shakespeare enjoyable for all

Mission

  • Performing Shakespeare and Renaissance drama in original staging conditions
  • Education – Mary Baldwin College’s MFA, elementary and high school students
  • Scholarship - World-renowned actors, directors, scholars, and specialists will be a part of American Shakespeare Center and teach in Mary Baldwin College's MLitt./MFA program

http://mbc.edu/shakespeare/partnership.asp

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Our Thesis

The American Shakespeare Center has the potential to be a great organization – one that delivers superior performance and makes a distinctive impact over a long period

(Collins, J. 2005)

Application through :

Stewardship, Innovation, Social Entrepreneurship

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Stewardship

holding something in trust for another and the careful and responsible management of something entrusted to one’s care.

(Smith, M. 2000)

Five Principles of Stewardship:

  • Balance
  • Interdependency
  • Regeneration
  • Diversity
  • Succession

(Smith, A. 2009)

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Stewardship of the Stakeholders

  • Stewardship is founded on the belief that others have the knowledge and the answers within themselves.

(Smith, M. 2000)

  • Stakeholders represent a potential source of hidden (organizational) value.

(Laszlo, 2008)

  • Valuing the Stakeholders adds balance to the organization as it gains a greater share of the public mind
  • (ASC) exists in an interdependent and networked environment, and going it alone is a doomed strategy.

(Esty, D., Winston, A., 2006)

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MFA

Mary Baldwin College

Staunton

Council

City Staff

Citizens

Founders

ASC

Board of Directors

AmericanShakespeareCenter

Stakeholder Map

  • The systematic mapping of all stakeholders and understanding the influence they exert will enable ASC to achieve a sustainable advantage.

Employees

Audience

Donors

Other Shakespeare Centres

Lines indicate relationships (solid = strong, dotted = weak, none = none).

Size equals relative size of the client.

Color equals the client feeling about the product or service (green = very good, red = good, purple = some good/some bad)

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Stewardship of the Mission

World's only authentic reconstruction of Shakespeare's indoor theatre

Located in downtown Staunton, just blocks from the Mary Baldwin campus

Serves as theater,classroom and laboratory

http://mbc.edu/shakespeare/partnership.asp

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Stewardship of the Mission

  • According to Collins, great organizations focus on what they can do better than anyone else can in the world.(2005)
  • Pragmatic organizations fail more often than ones that did not compromise their principles to attract more revenue or profile.(Edwards, 2008)
  • The distinctive characteristic of ASC is the Blackfriars Playhouse.
  • Focus on doing Shakespeare in the Blackfriars Playhouse
  • “Marketing is all about institutional vision and strategy. Know where you are and where you are going. You must understand what is sacrosanct to external audiences. You must acknowledge nostalgia.”(Oster et al., 2004)
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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Stewardship of Capacity Building

  • ASC must be managed for success because the supporters need to not only believe in the mission but also in the organizations capacity to deliver on that mission. (Collins, J, 2005)
  • Developing core values
  • Comprehensive business plan – strategies, objectives, financial, marketing, sales, metrics for measurement
  • Governance Issues – board development
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Sustainable Value Chain

American Shakespeare Center

Changing the "rules of the game"

ASC influences Staunton

It drives economic development

Arts and culture & Globe development

Business

Context

Developing a sustainable cultureand brand identity. Employer of choice.

Brand/

ASC & community share a distinctive brand

Culture

Meeting unmet social needs

Market

Stewardship of stakeholders for organizational and community development

Product

Creating product differentiation

The mission focus - Only Blackfriars Playhouse reproduction in the world

Reducing costs (energy, waste)

Capacity building through management of resources

Process

Risk

Reducing compliance risks

Stay ahead of the curve by engaging stakeholders – esp. on the government level

*Laszlo, Chris (2008).

Sustainable Value

AmericanShakespeareCenter

Strategic Focus

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Innovation

  • An innovative culture is one that takes advantage of opportunity to add value to an organization
  • Opportunities for Innovation
    • Internal
    • External
    • 1st Order Innovation(Scalar)
    • 2nd Order Innovation(Relational)
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AmericanShakespeareCenter

  • Limited stakeholder connection
  • Failure in public perception
  • Taxpayers of Staunton
      • Opportunity
      • Go out, look, listen and ask
      • Connection with stakeholders
      • Educate – performances and mission
      • Open house events
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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Shake the “fear” off Shakespeare

  • Interpret Shakespeare’s Language
  • Provide education in understanding of Shakespeare’s language
  • Connect with first time attendees
  • Spark interests for return playgoers

Seminars

  • Increase geographic footprint
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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Downtown Arts and Culture District

  • Taking the lead role

- Demonstrates 2nd Order Innovation

  • Connect with core stakeholders
  • Collaboration

- Constituents with similar interest, not necessarily in Shakespeare

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

External/Internal Relationships

  • Dame Judi Dench
  • Expanding from local to global focus

Board of Directors

  • Shifting from local to regional and national

Value and Credibility

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AmericanShakespeareCenter

Touring Troupe

  • Increase presence and earned income
  • Opportunities
    • Public Events,
    • Outdoor Venues
    • Public gatherings
    • Paid or free
    • Generate interest in travelling to Staunton
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Developing the Resource Engine

The resource engine is

actually a hybrid….

Part earned income

Part contributed support

Both provide ASC with

clean energy

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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Improving Earned Income

Community interaction, vignettes, local promotion

Raise ticket prices (NEA says attendance not tied to price)

Distribute more complimentary and discount tickets

More “plain English” Shakespeare

Another non-Shakespeare production; e.g. “1776” or related historical production on Independence Day

More efficient facility schedule to allow for fee based outside use

Consider options to generate revenue at Globe site

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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Earned Income of

Nonprofit Theaters

Since 2003, attendance at spoken theater events nationwide has declined by 16%

There are twice as many nonprofit theaters today as there were in 1990

Source: NEA, 2008

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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ASC’s Earned Income Since 2003

In remarkable contrast

to industry trends,

ASC’s earned income

INCREASED BY 50%

from $1.3 million

to over $2.1 million.

Source: Guidestar

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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Revenue Mix of Nonprofit Theaters

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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Dealing with the Unexpected Discovery:

An Opportunity for Innovation!

ASC has been challenged on the bottom line.

“Look elsewhere from the problem to find the solution” (Ackoff, 2008)

ASC bucks the industry trend for earned income.

With 16% less relative contributed support that its peers, ASC may have an opportunity

Perhaps some ways to increase, but not the obvious solution once perceived.

ASC has had fundraising success, but it’s fundraising efforts have been crisis generated, not regenerated.

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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“ASC should sell its mission, not its fear!”

Formal fundraising mechanism needed

Build emotional connection with stakeholders

Employ diverse mix of appeals

Healthy attendance record and trend + Local constituent demographics = Capacity for sustainable contributed support

Grants and contributions are a source of strength because they connect the organization and its stakeholders

(Edwards, 2008).

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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Balanced Approach

Annual Giving Program

Programmatic

Giving levels with quid pro quo rewards

Number of subscriptions and seat location improve as donors move through giving levels

Grants need to be a part of fundraising mechanism

Invest in mitigating cyclical restrictions

NEA reports that its funding has been a catalyst for attracting sizeable contributions from other sources

Planned Giving Program

Cultivates larger estate and trust gifts

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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Benefits

Fits with Stewardship goal of a better connection with stakeholders

Connected to core program and mission

Takes advantage of ASC’s fundraising capacity relative to industry peers (NEA, 2008)

Helps to balance ASC’s overall revenue mix

Has potential to be a turning flywheel (Collins, 2005)

Large gifts could provide source of capital to reduce or eliminate debt

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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“To Be or Not To Be”….a Great, Mission Driven, Flywheel Turning Organization

What does will it require of ASC?

Balance Governance

Inter-dependent on local culture

Regenerating fundraising program

Diverse revenue generating stream

Succession planned, not crisis saved

Smith, A. 2009

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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In conclusion, our journey with ASC was a process of innovation as a result of some unexpected findings

Sticking with the mission is an appropriate strategy

Connection with stakeholders on a deeper level will yield results; board diversification is a good place to start

The level of earned income is not the problem

A strong, programmatic fundraising mechanism could eliminate the need for crisis appeals

So, for the board, management and staff of ASC, we think our findings and recommendations are……..

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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“As You Like It!”

AmericanShakespeareCenter

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References:

Ackoff, R. (2008, December 12). YouTube. Message posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MBrEJjT-dWU&feature=related

Collins, Jim. (2005). Good to great and the social sectors. New York:Harper Collins.

Drucker, Peter. (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship: Practice and principles. New York: Harper & Row.

Edwards, Michael. (2008). Just another emperor? The myths and realities of philanthrocapitalism. New York: The Young Foundation.

Emery, F.E. and Trist, E.L. (1965). “The causal texture of organizational environments.” Human Relations, Vol. 18, No. 1, 21-32. Sage Publications.

Esty, Daniel and Winston, Andrew. (2009). Green to Gold: How smart companies use environmental strategy to innovate, create value, and build competitive advantage. Hoboken: John Wiley.

Guidestar. (n.d.). Non Profit report section. Retrieved August 1, 2009, from http://www2.guidestar.org/ReportNonProfit.aspx?ein=54-487955&Mode=NonGx&lid=531476&dl=True

Laszlo, Chris. (2008). Sustainable value: How the world’s leading companies are doing well by doing good. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

National Endowment for the Arts. (2008). “All America’s a Stage: Growth and Challenges in Nonprofit Theater”. www.arts.gov

National Endowment for the Arts. (2009). All America's a stage. Retrieved July 27, 2009, from http://arts.endow.gov/research/TheaterBrochure12-08.pdf

Oster, S., Massarsky C., and Beinhacker S., (eds.) (2004). Generating and sustaining nonprofit earned income. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Smith, Anthony. (2009). Stewardship design principles. Presented at Global Forum 2009 on Business as an Agent of World Benefit, UN Social Compact and Case Western University, Cleveland, OH. June 2-5, 2009.

Smith, Marilyn. (2000). Steward-leadership in the public sector. Presented at 23rd Annual Conference on Public Administration Teaching. Fort Lauderdale, FL.