Human Growth and Development
Genetics & Heredity • Traits are controlled by genes • Gregor Mendel established the basic laws of genetic inheritance *Genetic Dominance *Genetic Recessiveness • Chromosomal theory of genetic transmission became established in the 20th century.
DNA DNA is not the blueprint Creates proteins and the proteins eventually create the biochemistry. The biochemistry affects behavior. DNA is very flexible All genetic information is based on the order of the four base pairs along the chromosome.
DNA studies show a 1.6% difference between the great apes and humans. There are only 8 total mutations difference between humans and chimpanzees. Genetics studies show that humans & mice have 88% of the same genetic material. Can apes actually communicate with humans or is it the result of learning and rewards? The Human-Ape Connection
The human genome contains 30,000 genes. The human egg & sperm each contain 22 chromosomes plus the sex chromosomes. The Human Genome Compliment
The Human Genome contains about 3 billion base pairs. Stretched out, it would measure about six feet. Ninety-Percent of the variation in the human genome is found in a subset of 10 million pairs of nucleotides. At the DNA level, only 3 million pairs of nucleotides distinguish you from anyone else on the planet. The Human Genome Compliment
When a Sperm gets MOTIVATED
Fertilization The ZYGOTE is the fertilized egg. The zygote contains 22 PAIRSof chromosomes plus the sex chromosomes. The BLASTOCYST is the ball of cells that eventually forms the fetus. Calcium ions trigger the changes which become the different organs, skin, blood, bones, etc.
From Birth Onward Personality traits develop within the limits set by genetics under the influence of the environment. Language ability depends on the structure of the throat and mouth as well as learning experiences. Body size is significantly influenced by heredity and environment.
What the Neonate Knows Babies are capable of making logical inferences and gaining cause/ effect relationships. Two-hour old neonates can learn to predict relationships between events before an event and the event itself. They’re sensitive to certain sounds that caretakers intuitively make (e.g. clicks and sh-h-h-h induce relaxation).
The Reflexes Reflex Stimulation Response Developmental Pattern Blinking Flash of light, Puff Closes both eyes Permanent of air Babinski Stroke sole of foot Fans out toes, Disappears after 9 months to 1 twists foot year Grasping Touch palms of hands Grasps tightly Weakens after 3 months, disappears after 1 year Moro (Startle) Sudden stimulation Startles, arches back, Disappears after 3 – 4 months (e.g. loud noise or throws head back, being dropped) flings out arms & legs then rapidly closes Rooting Cheek stroked or Turns head, opens Disappears after 3 – 4 months side of mouth mouth, begins touched sucking Stepping Lower feet onto Moves feet as if to Disappears after 3 – 4 months flat surface walk Sucking Object touches Sucks automatically Disappears after 3 – 4 months mouth Swimming Put face down in Makes swimming Disappears after 6 – 7 months in water movements
The Neonate’s Vision The visual acuity of the neonate and infant are limited. The illustration below shows what a face looks like at Birth, at 1-month, and at 3-months.
An Infant sees only about 1 foot but can perceive depth. It sees shapes and prefers novel images. It recognizes faces and prefers attractive faces over those not attractive. An Infant is able to hear from at least the 6th month in utero. It can identify its mother’s voice as well as its own voice. It recognizes the sound of another infant/child who is in distress. The Senses in General
The Cephalocaudal Pattern The greatest growth always occurs at the top of the head with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom. Sensory and motor development proceed according to the cephalocaudal pattern. The Proximodistal Pattern Growth starts in the center of the body and moves toward the extremities. An example is the early maturation of muscular control of the trunk and arms, as compared with that of the hands and fingers. Physical Growth & Development
Neurological Development The Motor Neurons closest to the head develop first. The Central Nervous System is not fully developed until from 2 to 3 years of age. Myelination of the neurons is associated with critical periods.
Piaget Important Concepts:Schema -A mental model of an event, object, or action; a mental map. Assimilation -Fitting new information into what is already known. Accommodation -Refining the data into the current schema. Stage Developmental Patterns Sensory-Motor Stage Gradual development of the capability to coordinate sensations and perceptions with physical 0 – 2 years actions. Progression is from reflexive actions to symbolic activities to the ability to separate the self from the objects in the environment. Object permanence develops. Pre-operational Stage Characterized by the acquisition of language, the growth of the use of symbols, and a limited 2 – 7 years kind of logical thinking. Preconceptual thinking develops (the ability to deal with things individually but not as a group). Egocentricism develops. Concrete Operations Characterized by the need to stabilize thoughts in concrete events. The ability to perform 7 – 12 years intellectual operations relating to concrete events (e.g. ordering objects by number, size, and class). Conservation develops. Formal Operations Characterized by the ability to think about both concrete and abstract events, and the ability to 12+ years formulate and test hypotheses to solve problems. Can function purely on the symbolic, abstract level. The ability to used abstract symbols develops. Most people never reach this stage.
Moral Development Kohlberg refined Piaget’s stages of Moral Realism and Moral Autonomy. Level I: Preconventional Level Stage 1 – Fear of Punishment (Ages 4-10) Stage 2 – Self-interest and Reward Level II: Conventional LevelStage 3 – Desire to Please Others (Ages 10-13) Stage 4 – Respect for Authority & Social Order Level III: Postconventional LevelStage 5 – Respect for Individual Rights & (After Age 13 at Young Laws Adulthood or Never) Stage 6 – Universal Ethical Principles
Behaviorism B.F. Skinner Language is learned through conditioning procedures. Linguistics Noam Chomsky Language is pre-wired in the brain. There’s aLanguage Acquisition Device(LAD) already in the brain. Age Language Milestones Birth Crying 1 – 2 Months Cooing Begins 6 Months Babbling Begins 8 – 12 Months Use Gestures (Showing & Pointing) Comprehension of Words 13 Months First Word Spoken 18 Months Vocabulary Spurt Starts 18 – 24 Months Uses 2 Word Utterances; Rapid Expansion of Understanding of Words Language Development
Authoritarian Parenting A restrictive, punitive style in which the child must follow instructions and respect work and effort. Unexplained spankings may be frequent in order to enforce rigid rules. Anger may be frequently shown. Children of authoritarian parenting are unhappy, fearful and anxious when comparing themselves with others. They fail to initiate activities and tend toward social incompetence. Authoritative Parenting Encouraging, supportive and nurtures the child to be independent but still places limits and controls on actions. Much verbal give-and-take. Expects mature, independent, age-appropriate behavior. Children are often cheerful, self-controlled, self reliant, achievement oriented and socially competent. Permissive Parenting * Permissive Indulgent Parenting: Highly involved with children with few demands or controls. View is that warm involvement and few restrictions produces a creative, confident child. Children are socially incompetent, lacking self-control, aggressive, domineering, non-compliant with few peer interactions. * Permissive Indifferent Parenting: Parents are very uninvolved with the child. Children are socially incompetent, lack self-control, don’t handle independence well, have low self-esteem, are immature, and tend to be alienated from the family. As adolescents, they tend to show patterns of delinquency and truancy. Parenting Styles
Erikson Understanding Psychosocial Development is the key to understanding how a person grows throughout their life-span. Changes occur throughout life. Each stage of development has a unique developmental task with a crisis to be faced. The more the individual resolves the crisis, the healthier the development. Age Stage Birth – 1 Trust vs. Mistrust If basic needs are met, a sense of trust develops. 1 – 3 Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Child learns independence & self-confidence. 3 – 6 Initiative vs. Guilt Preschooler learns to initiate things & have self-control. 6 – 12 Industry vs. Inferiority Child learns to feel either competent or inadequate. Social Development
Adolescence • The sexual maturation period ending childhood and beginning adulthood • Primary and secondary sexual characteristics develop Many don’t know what to expect when the changes occur. Psychological reactions differ between those going into puberty early and those going in late.
Changes in Boys & Girls Variations of Physical Changes at Puberty Girls Boys Characteristics Age of Occurrence Characteristics Age of Occurrence Breasts Grow 8 – 13 Years Testes & Scrotal Sac Grow 10 – 13 Years Pubic Hair Develops 8 – 14 Years Pubic Hair Develops 10 – 15 Years The Body Grows 9.5– 14.5 Years The Body Grows 10.5 – 16 Years Menarche Occurs 10 – 16.5 Years Penis Growth 11 – 14.5 Years Underarm Hair Around 2 Years Underarm & Facial Around 2 Years after Pubic Hair Hair after Pubic Hair Oil/Sweat Glands Around the time of Oil/Sweat Glands Around the time of Underarm Hair Underarm Hair Voice Changes Around the same (Larynx Grows) as the Penis
Rites of Passage • Tribal Initiation Rites In many native cultures when a boy or girl enters adolescence, they must undergo an initiation into the tribe. At this time, they assume the responsibilities of an adult. What remnants of adolescent initiation rites do we have in our modern society?
Sexual Activity • First intercourse for most teens is from 16 – 17 years. • Sex tends to be a 1-on-1 relationship. • First intercourse tends to occur in December. They think they’re invulnerable to STDs and pregnancy (See: Personal Fable). Most sex is learned from peers.
Adolescent Cognitive Changes • Imaginary Audience The adolescent belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are. The attention-getting behavior is motivated by a desire to be noticed, visible, and “on stage.” • Personal Fable The part of adolescent egocentricism that involves their view of their uniqueness and invincibility. It is often seen in the belief that they’ll never suffer horrendous experiences that happen to other people.
Teenagers are the same EVERYWHERE
Personality & Social Development • A Period of “Storm & Strife?” • Identity Formation Identity vs. Identity Diffusion Identity Achievement –gone through a crisis & developed relatively firm commitments. Identity Foreclosure –never had a crisis but has become committed to certain goals. Identity Moratorium –currently going through a crisis. Identity Diffusion –never went through a crisis, isn’t in one, and hasn’t formed any commitments or established any goals. • Problems in Adolescence Decline in Self-Esteem Depression & Suicide Violence
Early & Middle Adulthood • Love, Partnerships, & Parenting • Career & Work • Cognitive Changes • Personality Changes • Stages: Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Self-Absorption
Love, Partnerships, & Parenting • Forming Partnerships Loving vs. Falling in Love • Cohabitation Living together before marriage does not bring marital satisfaction • Parenthood Preparation for Parenthood • When Relationships End Separation & Divorce Death
Cognitive & Personality Changes • Brain & Neurological Changes • Trait Changes • Midlife Transition vs. Midlife Crisis • Menopause
Late Adulthood • Integrity vs. Despair • Physical Changes • Social Changes • Cognitive Changes • Death & Dying
Theories of Aging • The Genetic Theory Programmed into the cells. • Cellular Clock Theory There is a maximum number of times a cell can divide. • Free-Radical Theory (Antioxidant Theory) Cells normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules (free radicals) that bounce around the cell damaging DNA & other cellular structures. • Hormonal Stress Theory The body’s hormonal system lowers resilience to stress increasing the likelihood 0f disease.
Retirement • Family Changes • Defining Retirement Difficult to define retirement because of the reasons there are for retiring, the influences on retiring, and what one does after retiring. The withdrawal process is “blurred” so, stages of retirement aren’t very descriptive of what actually goes on.
Alzheimer’s & Parkinson’s Disease The Stages of Death and Dying Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Cognitive Changes & the Final Stages