Islamic University-Gaza Civil Engineering Department Infrastructure Master Program Emergency Management Signs Prepared by : Hussein Al-Najjar YusefShaheen Supervised by: Dr : Esam El-Masri March , 2012
Outline : • Sign definition • Sign functions • Sign Limitations • Principles of traffic signs • Use of Sign Shapes • Emergency Management • Design of Emergency Management Signs • Examples ofEmergency Management Signs • Control of Traffic Through Traffic Incident Management Areas • Examples of Traffic Incident Management Area Signs
Sign definition : Sign is defined as any traffic control device that is intended to communicate specific information to road users through a word, symbol, and/or arrow legend or A traffic sign is defined as a device mounted on a fixed or portable support whereby a specific message is conveyed by means of words or symbols. Signs do not include highway traffic signals, pavement markings, delineators, or channelization devices.
Purpose: The purpose of traffic control devices, as well as the principles for their use, is to promote highway safety and efficiency by providing for the orderly movement of all road users on streets and highways throughout the Nation. Continues …..
Purpose: Traffic control devices or their supports shall not bear any advertising message or any other message that is not related to traffic control.
Sign functions • Regulatory signs give notice of traffic laws or regulations. • Warning signs give notice of a situation that might not be readily apparent. • Guide signs show route designations, destinations, directions, distances, services, points of interest, and other geographical, recreational, or cultural information
Sign Limitations • Easily damaged due to impact or vandalism • Visual quality degrade over time due to dirt and normal reflectivity deterioration • Require continuous maintenance
Principles of traffic signs • Fulfill a need; • Command attention; • Convey a clear, simple meaning; • Command respect from road users; and • Give adequate time for proper response.
Design : Shape, color, Size, composition, lighting or retro-reflection should command attention and convey a simple meaning. The sign should have: A. High visibility by day and night; and B. High legibility (adequately sized letters or symbols, and a short legend for quick comprehension by a road user approaching a sign).
Emergency Management Contingency planning for an emergency evacuation should be considered by all State and local jurisdictions and should consider the use of all applicable roadways. In the event of a disaster where highways that cannot be used will be closed continue …..
Emergency Management A successful contingency plan should account for the following elements: a controlled operation of certain designated highways, the establishment of traffic operations for the expediting of essential traffic, and the provision of emergency centres for civilian aid.
Design of Emergency Management Signs • Emergency Management signs shall be used to guide and control highway traffic during an emergency. • Emergency Management signs shall not permanently displace any of the standard signs that are normally applicable. • Advance planning for transportation operations’ emergencies shall be the responsibility of State and local authorities. • The Federal Government shall provide guidance to the States as necessitated by changing circumstances. continue ….
Design of Emergency Management Signs • As conditions permit, the Emergency Management signs should be replaced or augmented by standard signs . • The background of Emergency Management sign should be retroreflective. • Because Emergency Management signs might be needed in large numbers for temporary use during an emergency, consideration should be given to their fabrication from any light and economical material that can serve through the emergency period. • Any Emergency Management sign that is used to mark an area that is contaminated by biological or chemical warfare agents or radioactive fallout may be accompanied by the standard symbol
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • Evacuation Route Signs • The Evacuation Route signs shall display a blue circular symbol on a white square sign without a border as shown in Figure. The sign shall be a blue 18 inches diameter circle with a directional arrow and the legend EVACUATION ROUTE. • If used in urban areas, the Evacuation Route sign shall be mounted at the right-hand side of the roadway, not less than 7 feet above the top of the curb, and at least 1 foot back from the face of the curb. continue …….
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • If used in rural areas, the Evacuation Route sign shall be mounted at the right-hand side of the roadway, not less than 7 feet above the pavement and not less than 6 feet or more than 10 feet to the right of the right-hand roadway edge. • Evacuation Route signs shall not be placed where they will conflict with other signs. Where conflict in placement would occur between the Evacuation Route sign and a standard regulatory sign, the regulatory sign shall take precedence.
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • AREA CLOSED Sign • The AREA CLOSED sign shall be used to close a roadway in order to prohibit traffic from entering the area • It shall be installed on the shoulder as near as practical to the right-hand edge of the roadway, or preferably, on a portable mounting or barricade partly or entirely in the roadway. • For best visibility, particularly at night, the sign height should not exceed 4 feet measured vertically from the pavement to the bottom of the sign.
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT Sign • The TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT sign shall be used to designate a location where an official traffic control point has been set up to impose such controls as are necessary to limit congestion, expedite emergency traffic, exclude unauthorized vehicles, or protect the public. • The standard STOP sign shall be used in conjunction with the TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT sign. • The TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT sign should be mounted directly below the STOP sign
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • MAINTAIN TOP SAFE SPEED Sign • The MAINTAIN TOP SAFE SPEED sign may be used on highways where conditions are such that it is prudent to evacuate or traverse an area as quickly as possible • Where an existing Speed Limit sign is in a suitable location, the MAINTAIN TOP SAFE SPEED sign may conveniently be mounted directly over the face of the speed limit sign that it supersedes. continue …
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • If used in rural areas, the MAINTAIN TOP SAFE SPEED sign shall be mounted on the right-hand side of the road at a horizontal distance of not less than 6 feet or more than 10 feet from the roadway edge, and at a minimum height, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the elevation of the near edge of the traveled way, of 5 feet. • If used in urban areas, the minimum height, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the top of the curb, or in the absence of curb, measured vertically from the bottom ofthe sign to the elevation of the near edge of the traveled way, shall be 7 feet, and the nearest edge of the sign shall be not less than 1 foot back from the face of the curb.
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • ROAD (AREA) USE PERMIT REQUIRED FOR THRU TRAFFIC Sign • The intent of the ROAD (AREA) USE PERMIT REQUIRED FOR THRU TRAFFIC sign is to notify road users of the presence of the traffic control point so that those who do not have priority permits issued by designated authorities can take another route, or turn back, without making a needless trip and without adding to the screening load at the post. Local traffic, without permits, can proceed as far as the traffic control post. continue …
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • If used, the ROAD (AREA) USE PERMIT REQUIRED FOR THRU TRAFFIC sign shall be used at an intersection that is an entrance to a route on which a traffic control point is located.
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • Emergency Aid Centre Signs • In the event of emergency, State and local authorities shall establish various centers for civilian relief, communication, medical service, and similar purposes. To guide the public to such centers a series of directional signs shall be used. • Emergency Aid Center signs shall carry the designation of the center and an arrow indicating the direction to the center. continue …..
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • They shall be installed as needed, at intersections and elsewhere, on the right-hand side of the roadway, in urban areas at a minimum height, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the top of the curb, or in the absence of curb, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the elevation of the near edge of the traveled way, of 7 feet, and not less than 1 foot back from the face of the curb, and in rural areas at a minimum height, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the elevation of the near edge of the traveled way, of 5 feet, and at a horizontal distance of not less than 6 feet or more than 10 feet from the roadway edge. continue …..
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • Emergency Aid Centre signs shall carry one of the following legends, as appropriate, or others designating similar emergency facilities: • MEDICAL CENTER • WELFARE CENTER • REGISTRATION CENTER • DECONTAMINATION CENTER
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • Shelter Directional Signs • Shelter Directional signs shall be used to direct the public to selected shelters that have been licensed and marked for emergency use. • The installation of Shelter Directional signs shall comply with established signing standards. Where used, the signs shall not be installed in competition with other necessary highway guide, warning, and regulatory signs. continue …..
Examples of Emergency Management Signs • Shelter Directional signs may carry one of the following legends, or others designating similar emergency facilities: • EMERGENCY • HURRICANE • FALLOUT • CHEMICAL
CONTROL OF TRAFFIC THROUGH TRAFFIC INCIDENT MANAGEMENT AREAS. • The National Incident Management System (NIMS) requires the use of the Incident Command System (ICS) at traffic incident management scenes. • A traffic incident is an emergency road user occurrence, a natural disaster, or other unplanned event that affects or impedes the normal flow of traffic. continue ……
CONTROL OF TRAFFIC THROUGH TRAFFIC INCIDENT MANAGEMENT AREAS. • A traffic incident management area is an area of a highway where temporary traffic controls are installed, as authorized by a public authority or the official having jurisdiction of the roadway, in response to a road user incident, natural disaster, hazardous material spill, or other unplanned incident. It is a type of TTC zone and extends from the first warning device (such as a sign, light, or cone) to the last TTC device or to a point where vehicles return to the original lane alignment and are clear of the incident continue ……
CONTROL OF TRAFFIC THROUGH TRAFFIC INCIDENT MANAGEMENT AREAS. • Traffic incidents can be divided into three general classes of duration, each of which has unique traffic control characteristics and needs. These classes are: • Major—expected duration of more than 2 hours, • Intermediate—expected duration of 30 minutes to 2 hours, and • Minor—expected duration under 30 minutes. continue ……
CONTROL OF TRAFFIC THROUGH TRAFFIC INCIDENT MANAGEMENT AREAS • The primary functions of TTC at a traffic incident management area are to inform road users of the incident and to provide guidance information on the path to follow through the incident area.
Use of Emergency-Vehicle Lighting • The use of emergency-vehicle lighting (such as high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights) is essential, especially in the initial stages of a traffic incident, for the safety of emergency responders and persons involved in the traffic incident, as well as road users approaching the traffic incident. continue …..
Use of Emergency-Vehicle Lighting • Emergency-vehicle lighting, however, provides warning only and provides no effective traffic control. The use of too many lights at an incident scene can be distracting and can create confusion for approaching road users, especially at night. • Road users approaching the traffic incident from the opposite direction on a divided facility are often distracted by emergency-vehicle lighting and slow their vehicles to look at the traffic incident posing a hazard to themselves and others traveling in their direction. continue …..
Use of Emergency-Vehicle Lighting • The use of emergency-vehicle lighting can be reduced if good traffic control has been established at a traffic incident scene. This is especially true for major traffic incidents that might involve a number of emergency vehicles. • If good traffic control is established through placement of advanced warning signs and traffic control devices to divert or detour traffic, then public safety agencies can perform their tasks on scene with minimal emergency-vehicle lighting. continue ……
Examples of Traffic Incident Management Area Signs • Detour Route Auxiliary • End Detour Route Auxiliary • End (Detour) Auxiliary
Examples of Traffic Incident Management Area Signs • Detour Arrow • Stop Ahead (symbol) • Be Prepared To Stop
Examples of Traffic Incident Management Area Signs • Lane Ends (symbol) • Flagger (symbol)
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