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Table of Contents. What Is an Animal? Animal Symmetry Sponges and Cnidarians Worms. Structure vs. Function. What is the difference?

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table of contents
Table of Contents
  • What Is an Animal?
  • Animal Symmetry
  • Sponges and Cnidarians
  • Worms
What is an Animal?



Most are multi-cellular

Most are mobile

Most reproduce sexually

structure vs function
Structure vs. Function
  • What is the difference?
  • How do these terms relate to Biology and the study of animals?
structure of animals

- What Is an Animal?

Structure of Animals
  • The cells of most animals are organized into higher levels of structure, including tissues,
  • organs, and systems.
function of animals
Function of Animals
  • The four major functions of all animals include:
  • Obtaining Food & Oxygen
  • Keeping Conditions Stable
  • Movement
  • Reproduction
  • Animals haveadaptationsthat allow them to perform these basic functions in their respective environments.
classification of animals

- What Is an Animal?

Classification of Animals
  • This branching tree shows how the major animal groupsare related. There

Body structure

  • Development
  • DNA
  • *These criteria help classify animals into ~35 major groups or phylums.

How are animals classified?

vertebrates vs invertebrates
Vertebrates vs. Invertebrates
  • Vertebrates are simply animals with a backbone (like yourself)
  • Invertebrates are animals without a backbone
  • *The majority of all animals are invertebrates!
comparing and contrasting

- Animal Symmetry

Comparing and Contrasting
  • As you read, compare and contrast the characteristics of animals with bilateral symmetry and radial symmetry in a Venn diagram like the one below. Write the similarities in the space where the circles overlap and the differences on the left and right sides.

Radial Symmetry

Bilateral Symmetry

One line of symmetry, halves that are mirror images, front end with sense organs, quick movement

Many lines of symmetry, no distinct front end, live in water, move slowly

Balanced arrangement of parts, perform all the basic life functions

links on animal symmetry

- Animal Symmetry

Links on Animal Symmetry
  • Click the SciLinks button for links on animal symmetry.

- Sponges and Cnidarians

  • Structures surrounding the central cavity of a sponge are adapted for different functions.

- Sponges and Cnidarians

  • The sexual reproduction of sponges involves a larval stage that moves. Adult sponges stay in one place.
structure of a sponge activity

- Sponges and Cnidarians

Structure of a Sponge Activity
  • Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about the structure of a sponge.
calculating a rate
To calculate the rate of water flow in a sponge, divide the volume of water that the sponge filters by the time it takes the water to pass through the sponge.

Flow rate = Volume of water/Time

For example, a marble-sized sponge filters 15.6 liters of water in a day. How many liters does it filter per hour?

Practice Problem

In four days, a sponge filters 1,200 L. What is its rate of water flow per day?

300 L/day

- Sponges and Cnidarians

Calculating a Rate

- Sponges and Cnidarians

  • Cnidarians have two basic body plans, the vase-shaped polyp and the bowl-shaped medusa.

- Sponges and Cnidarians

  • Cnidarians use stinging cells to capture food and defend themselves.

- Sponges and Cnidarians

  • The life cycle of a moon jelly has both a polyp and a medusa stage.
comparing and contrasting1

- Sponges and Cnidarians

Comparing and Contrasting
  • As you read, compare and contrast sponges and cnidarians by completing a table like the one below.




Polyp or medusa, central body cavity, tentacles

Body structure

Hollow body with pores

Cell type that traps food

Collar cells

Stinging cells

Method(s) of reproduction

Sexual and asexual

Sexual and asexual

characteristics of worms

- Worms

Characteristics of Worms
  • Biologists classify worms into three major phyla—flatworms, roundworms, and segmented worms.
life cycle of a dog tapeworm

- Worms

Life Cycle of a Dog Tapeworm
  • This flatworm is a parasite that lives in more that one host during its life cycle.
roundworm numbers

- Worms

Roundworm Numbers
  • Biologists counted all the roundworms living in a plot of soil. Then they calculated the percentage that lives in different depths of soil.
roundworm numbers1
In the first centimeter

Reading Graphs:

Where in the soil was the largest percentage of roundworms found?

- Worms

Roundworm Numbers
roundworm numbers2
About 87%


What is the total percentage of roundworms found in the first 3-cm depth of soil?

- Worms

Roundworm Numbers
roundworm numbers3
The deeper the soil, the fewer the worms

Drawing Conclusions:

What is the relationship between the depth of soil and the abundance of roundworms in the soil?

- Worms

Roundworm Numbers
segmented worms

- Worms

Segmented Worms
  • Earthworms and other segmented worms have bodies made up of many linked sections called segments.
using prior knowledge

- Worms

Using Prior Knowledge
  • Before you read, write what you know about worms in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn.

What You Know

Worms are long and skinny.

Worms live in the ground and digest soil.

Worms are slimy and wriggly.

What You Learned

Worms have bilateral symmetry.

Some worms are flat.

Some worms live in water.

Some worms are parasites.

Worms have a nervous system.

more on worms

- Worms

More on Worms
  • Click the button for an activity about worms.
graphic organizer
Graphic Organizer

Sponge releases sperm.

Sperm enter another sponge and fertilize egg cell.

Larva settles on a surface and develops into adult sponge.

The Life of a Sponge

Water currents carry away larva.

Larva develops.