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The ABC’s of Effective Classrooms: PBIS , Equity & the Common Core. Chris Borgmeier, PhD cborgmei@pdx.edu www.swpbis.pbworks.com. Objectives. What is PBIS? What does it have to do with Equity & the Common Core? ABCs of PBIS in the Classroom

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slide1

The ABC’s of Effective Classrooms: PBIS, Equity

& the Common Core

Chris Borgmeier, PhD

cborgmei@pdx.edu

www.swpbis.pbworks.com

objectives
Objectives
  • What is PBIS?
    • What does it have to do with Equity & the Common Core?
  • ABCs of PBIS in the Classroom
  • The Fundamentals of Classroom PBIS: Maximizing Your Investments & Increasing your Odds
how to be my audience
How to be My Audience
  • Teach what you want to see
    • Look Smart
      • Eyes on me
      • Smile & Nod
      • Laugh at my Jokes
      • “Ooh & Ahh” on Cue
    • Listen Respectfully
      • Limit side talk
      • Use technology responsibly
slide5

~5%

~15%

pbis big ideas
PBIS Big Ideas
  • Commitment to serve ALL students
    • Setting ALL Students & Staff up for Success
      • Level the Playing Field for All Students
      • Positive & Welcoming for ALL
  • Proactive is better than Reactive
  • Teach Social Behavior like we teach Academics
  • Increase participation in school & academic success
    • LIMIT LOSS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TIME
pbis big ideas1
PBIS Big Ideas
    • LIMIT LOSS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TIME
  • Reduce use of exclusionary & punitive strategies
    • Time in Hall, Time in Office, Suspension, Detention
  • Instead of focusing on punishment, focus on the remediation & instruction of alternative, desired behavior
challenge
Challenge…
  • Schools (Teachers) are facing an increasingly diverse and challenging population of students with limited resources & increasing expectations
  • How to enhance schools’ (teachers’) capacity to effectively and efficiently prevent and respond to the range of problem behaviors observed in schools.
    • “Work Smarter”
pbis big ideas2
PBIS: Big Ideas
  • Focus on What We Can Change
    • We cannot prescribe medication
    • We cannot change the students previous experiences
    • We often cannot change the parenting practices in the home
  • What Can We (the Professionals) Change?
    • our own Behavior, Practices, and Beliefs
positive predictable environments
Positive, Predictable Environments
  • Especially necessary for diverse learners
    • Second-language learners
    • Struggling learners
    • Learners from different cultures
    • Learners with challenges with attention and impulsivity
  • But benefit ALL students
slide14

Intensive Individual Interventions:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behaviour

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

~15%

Targeted Group Interventions:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behaviour

Universal Interventions:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students

slide15

Research has consistently shown that the amount of time that instruction is provided is highly correlated with student achievement(Brophy, 1988; Fisher, Berliner, Filby, Marliave, Cahen, Dishaw, 1980)

    • Limit downtime – get to instruction
    • Smooth, Quick Transitions
    • Limited interruptions of instruction
    • Limited Problem Behavior
back to the basics
Back to the Basics
  • The Fundamentals of Classroom and Instructional Management
  • Important Keys to:
    • Equity in the Classroom
    • Maximizing Instruction of the Common Core
learning
Learning

A  B  C

Student Learns through repeated experience, that under these specific Antecedent conditions, if I engage in this Behavior, I can expect this Consequence

abc s of understanding chronic behavior patterns
ABC’s of Understanding Chronic Behavior Patterns
  • What happens before (A or antecedent) the behavior occurs?
    • Trigger
  • What is the behavior (B)?
  • What happens after (C or consequence) the behavior occurs?
    • Response or Outcome of the Behavior

A  B  C

summary statement
Summary Statement
  • Based on several observations
  • Identifies predictable relationships between environmental variables and behavior

When

student will

because

therefore the function of the behavior is to access /escape/avoid

(choose one)

asked to math problem in front of class

(some Antecedent condition occurs)

Verbally refuse, disrespect teacher

(engage in a specific Behavior)

teacher calls on someone else

(a predictable outCome will occur)

Math failure/embarrassment

(something in the environment)

slide25

Classroom Setting

Evidence Based Practices

B

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged
  • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged
  • Precorrectionsfor chronic errors
  • Active supervision and Proximity
  • Active Engagement: Frequent Opportunities To Respond (OTR)
  • Ratio of 5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction
  • Effective Correction & Redirection for minor behavior errors

B

A

A

A

C

C

probabilities
Probabilities

What works for Most Kids Most of the Time

Nothing always works… but what are the odds?

slide27

Tertiary Prevention:

FBABSP for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

~15%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

Primary Prevention:

School/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

slide28

Tertiary Prevention:

FBABSP for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

~15%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

Primary Prevention:

School/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~15%

Won’t act out no matter what!

~5%

the fundamentals of effective classroom management

The Fundamentals of Effective Classroom Management

Increasing the ODDS Practices to Invest In

routines predictability
Routines & Predictability
  • Daily Schedule & Sequence
  • Expectations & Routines
  • Acknowledgement
  • How you Respond to Problem Behavior
    • And doing so effectively
positive predictable classrooms
Positive, Predictable Classrooms

Consistency

is the Key!!!

A  B  C

Student Learns through repeated experience, that under these specific Antecedent conditions, if I engage in this Behavior, I can expect this Consequence

what the research says
What the Research Says

Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations.

Summary of Supporting Research:

  • Teaching and reviewing expectations (i.e., social skills) and providing feedback is associated with:
    • Decreases in off-task behavior disruptive behavior (i.e., talking out)
    • Increases in academic engagement, leadership and conflict resolution

(Johnson, & Stoner, 1996; Sharpe, Brown, & Crider, 1995; Rosenberg, 1986)

  • Pairing rule-instruction with feedback and reinforcement leads to the largest gains

(Greenwood, Hops, Delquadri, & Guild, 1974)

what the research says1
What the Research Says

Teachers Establish Smooth, Efficient Classroom Routines

  • Plan rules & procedures before the school year begins and present them to students during the first few days of school
  • Provide written behavior standards and teach and review them from the beginning of the year
  • Provide considerable teaching and reteaching of classroom rules and procedures

Cotton, 1995 -- “Effective Schooling Practices a Research Synthesis - Updated”

slide37

Need to know what you want it to look like

    • Expected Behavior
    • Routines (social, instructional, organizational)
    • Transitions
  • Video Examples
    • http://explicitinstruction.org/?page_id=92
      • Active Participation - 7th Grade
    • http://www.scoe.org/pub/htdocs/archer-videos.html
      • Active Participation - 7th Grade
how to be my audience1
How to be My Audience
  • Teach what you want to see
    • Look Smart
      • Eyes on me & Track
      • Smile & Nod
      • Laugh at my Jokes
      • “Ooh & Ahh” on Cue
    • Listen Respectfully
      • Limit side talk
      • Use technology responsibly
a antecedent intervention

A – Antecedent Intervention

PREVENT

& Set up for Success

slide40

PREVENT… Nothing always works – we’re just playing the odds

    • I like my odds better before problem behavior has occurred rather than after
precorrection prompting
PreCorrection & Prompting
  • Don’t be afraid to give them the answer in advance
  • Stacking the Deck…

so more students practice the Correct response

  • Teaching = Scaffolding practice and opportunities to do it right
proximity for prevention
Proximity (for Prevention)
  • Active Supervision
    • Increases opportunities:
      • Catch & Acknowledge more kids doing right thing
      • Pre-empt potential problem behaviors
  • “With-it-ness”
opportunities to respond otr
Opportunities to Respond - OTR
  • An instructional question, statement or gesture made by the teacher seeking an academic response from students. Can be provided individually or to whole class.
                  • Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale2006
      • The number of times the teacher provides academic requests that require students to actively respond.
      • Teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (verbal, written, gesture).
        • Chorale/Whole Group Responding
        • Partner Responding
        • Individual Responding (via planful random selection)
        • Individual Responding (via volunteer)
active participation why
Active Participation - Why?

Increasing Opportunities to Respond is related to:

  • Increased academic achievement
  • Increased on-task behavior
  • Decreased behavioral challenges

Caveat

  • Only successful responding brings these results

Initial Instruction - 80% accuracy

Practice/Review - 90% or higher accuracy

Anita Archer

c consequences

C – Consequences

REINFORCE

& Effective Redirection & Correction

when teaching new skills
When Teaching New Skills
  • Consistent Responding is Key when new skills (academic or behavioral) are first being learned
    • Consistent praise and acknowledgment for correct behavior
    • Consistent error correction with practice performing the correct response
    • Frequent Review and PreCorrection

Praise and error correction should follow nearly every response during Acquisition of a New Skill

positive predictable classrooms1
Positive, Predictable Classrooms

Consistency

is the Key!!!

A  B  C

Student Learns through repeated experience, that under these specific Antecedent conditions, if I engage in this Behavior, I can expect this Consequence

active supervision
Active Supervision
  • Effective scanning and movement allows for more opportunities:
    • To catch more students engaged in positive behavior
    • Catch minor misbehavior early and prevent escalation
      • Use proximity and prompts to redirect student behavior early
    • Catch academic errors early before practice of misrules or errors (and frustration)
1000 classroom observation study
1000 Classroom Observation Study

=5.4 Pos. Feedback / Hour

  • Total Classrm Obs.
  • Elem = 1515
  • MS = 725
  • HS = 1381

=2.4 Pos. Feedback / Hour

increasing specific praise
Increasing Specific Praise

“You know when I do it…. It really works!”

slide51

Any time students have engaged in problem behavior we are in a compromised situation

  • At best – behavior is quickly redirected and we can get back to instruction
point of no return
Point of No Return
  • Identify early stages of behavior so staff can intervene previous to escalation
    • Cut off escalation chain

Behavior Escalation Worksheet

Lower Intensity/ Higher Intensity/

More predictable Less predictable

Whining, Tantrum/ Tearing up Verbal Aggression

Talking Insubordinate papers Threats

preparing for misbehavior
Preparing for Misbehavior
  • Be Prepared! Be Proactive!
  • Anticipate behaviors you will see and know how you will respond
  • List anticipated problem behaviors& how you will respond to problem behavior
    • Redirection
    • Pre-planned consequence
responding to misbehavior
Responding to Misbehavior
  • Respond Consistently, Calmly, Briefly & Return to Instruction
    • Goal: pay more time & attention to positive behavior
    • Reduce Student Escalation
    • Reduce amount of missed instructional time
responding effectively to misbehavior
Responding Effectively to Misbehavior
  • Two Good Videos
    • “Managing Noncompliance” by Geoff Colvin
    • “Defusing Anger & Aggression” by Geoff Colvin
  • Available for purchase at Iris Media --- www.irised.com
guidelines for de escalation
Guidelines for De-Escalation
  • Maintain the Group
    • Try not to limit impact of problem behavior to individual student
  • Speak Privately
  • Calm Voice
  • Provide Choices
    • Follow Direction or Consequence
  • Give Student a Chance to Decide
    • Without you staring/daring them not to comply
  • Acknowledge Cooperation
survey school staff
Survey School Staff
  • Practices identified by teachers as ‘Least In Place’ and ‘Highest Priority for Improvement’ are:
    • Increasing acknowledgment of positive behavior (improving 4.67 to 1 ratio)
    • Increasing use of PreCorrection
    • Increasing Opportunities for Student Responses
slide59

Borgmeier, Loman & Hara (In Press). Teacher Self-Assessment of Evidence-Based Classroom Practices to Guide School-wide Intervention: Preliminary Findings. Teacher Development

elementary 2012 13 n 19
Elementary 2012-13(n=19)

Middle School 2012-13(n = 35)

slide61

Works with Most Kids…

Most of the Time

  • If not working repeatedly
    • Tier 2 & Tier 3 Supports Necessary

&

    • Maintaining most effective practices that work for most students most of the time… with ALL students (Tier 1)
slide62

Classroom Setting

Evidence Based Practices

B

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged
  • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged
  • Ratio of 5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction
  • Active supervision and Proximity
  • Effective Correction & Redirection for minor behavior errors
  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors
  • Active Engagement: Frequent Opportunities To Respond (OTR)

B

C

A

C

A

A

How can we implement systems that support staff to implement these practices consistently?

slide63

School-wide Positive

Behavior Support

Systems

Classroom

Setting Systems

Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

Individual Student

Systems

School-wide

Systems

non example action plan strategies
Non-example Action Plan Strategies
  • Purchase & distribute classroom management curriculum/book
  • Discuss at faculty meeting
  • Bring in CM expert for next month’s ½ day in-service
  • Observe in effective classroom
  • Observe & give feedback

What is likelihood of change in teacher practice?

(Sugai, 2006)

example action plan strategies
Example Action Plan Strategies

+ Build on SW System

+ Use school-wide leadership team

+ Use data to justify

+ Adopt evidence based practice

+ Teach/practice to fluency/automaticity

+ Ensure accurate implementation 1st time

+ Regular review & active practice

+ Monitor implementation continuously

+ Acknowledge improvements

(Sugai, 2006)

classroom systems building capacity v one shot support
Classroom SystemsBuilding Capacity v. One Shot Support
  • Build systems to support sustained use of effective practices
    • SW leadership team
    • Regular data review
    • Regular individual & school action planning
    • Regular support & review
      • To begin school year & throughout school year
slide67

Thank You!

Enjoy the Conference

Chris Borgmeier, PhD

cborgmei@pdx.edu

www.swpbis.pbworks.com