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Biology Chapter 8 PowerPoint Presentation
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Biology Chapter 8 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Osmosis and Cells. Biology Chapter 8. Osmosis - the diffusion of water the movement of water from an area where there is more water to an area where there is less water controlled by the amount of solute in a solution. solutions: solute - substance dissolved by something else

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slide2

Osmosis- the diffusion of water

the movement of water from an area where there is more water to an area where there is less water

controlled by the amount of solute in a solution

slide3

solutions:

    • solute- substance dissolved by something else
    • solvent- substance that does the dissolving
slide4

cells are usually in a watery environment

remember, cells can’t stop movement of water

3 types of soln cells can be in

isotonic soln-

iso- means equal

a soln in which the concentration of particles OUTSIDE the cell is the same as the conc of particles INSIDE the cell

water moves INTO & OUT of cell in the same amount

3 types of soln cells can be in:
2 hypotonic soln

hypo- means LOWER

a soln in which the conc of dissolved particles OUTSIDE cell is LOWER than the same dissolved particles inside the cell

water moves INTO THE CELL until conc equals out

2. hypotonic soln:
slide10

cell swells as water moves in

animal cells may burst or LYSE if too much water gets in

slide11

plant cell swells; cell membrane PUSHES against cell wall

TURGOR PRESSURE is maintained

plant erect

3 hypertonic soln

hyper- means HIGHER

soln in which the conc of dissolved particles OUTSIDE cell is HIGHER than the conc of same particles inside the cell

water moves OUTof the cell

3. hypertonic soln
slide20

Cells need certain substances- food, oxygen, ions- inside them

got to go thru cell membrane

transported into cell in 2 ways

2 types of transport

1. passive transport- occurs as a cell uses NO energy to move particles

osmosis & diffusion are ex of passive transport

particles are small & will move from where there is more of them to where there is less

2 types of transport:
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sometimes particles are too large to go thru cell membrane easily but still moving along conc gradient (from more to less)

have to have help- particles will move thru the transport proteins in cell membrane

this is called facilitated diffusion

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2. active transport- movement of particles against conc gradient that requires cell to use energy

cell is moving particles from a LOW CONC to an area of HIGHER CONC

transport proteins have to be used

several types of active transport

a. endocytosis- cell surrounds & takes in materials from env

endo- within

b. phagocytosis- another cell is moved into cell

ex: white blood cell engulfs invading bacteria

several types of active transport:
slide29

c. pinocytosis- engulfing of liquid particles

d. exocytosis- expelling of waste & bits of matter

exo- means outside

remember

passive transport: no energy is used & particles are moved from MORE TO LESS

active transport: energy is used to move particles from LESS TO MORE

remember: