social constructionism knowledge is a creation based on social interests n.
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Social Constructionism: Knowledge is a Creation Based on Social Interests. Science is not the objective accumulation of facts, because “facts” are answers to questions framed in incommensurable theoretical frameworks ( paradigms )

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social constructionism knowledge is a creation based on social interests
Social Constructionism: Knowledge is a Creation Based on Social Interests

Science is not the objective accumulation of facts, because “facts” are answers to questions framed in incommensurable theoretical frameworks (paradigms)

Epistemological Relativism: knowledge varies in conceptual schemes with different criteria for justification, truth, & rationality

  • Communal interests determine how to evaluate different paradigms

Thomas Kuhn

the gendered character of knowledge
The Gendered Character of Knowledge
  • Feminine characterizations of knowledge aim at explanation and understanding instead of an adversarial determination of “facts” removed from their contexts
  • This does not imply that women are “naturally” different from men (e.g., more sensitive or less objective); such essentialism ignores how even gender is a social construct
  • What is knowable is determined by relations of power in a discipline

Lorraine Code

Michel Foucault

constructivist confusions alan sokal
Constructivist Confusions: Alan Sokal
  • To say that “physical reality is a social and linguistic construct” is to confuse:
    • objects in the world with what we say about them
    • how we get knowledge with its reliability
    • knowledge about the world with social, political, or ethical uses of such knowledge
      • Reply: objective/subjective distinctions are naïve, unjustified, and even dangerous