The Center of It All

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# The Center of It All - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Center of It All. The Sun. The Sun’s distance from the Earth is 150 million km (93 million miles). The Sun. http:// science.nationalgeographic.com /science/space/solar-system/sun-article/. Fun Facts. The sun in the largest object on the solar system.

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## The Center of It All

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### The Center of It All

The Sun

The Sun’s distance from the Earth is 150 million km (93 million miles)

The Sun

http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/solar-system/sun-article/

Fun Facts

The sun in the largest object on the solar system.

Approximately 109 planet Earths would fit on the surface of the sun and more than one million planets Earths would fit inside the sun.

The sun is often personified in mythologies: Greeks call is Helios and the Romans call it Sol. In Japan it is called Amaterasu.

The sun is 70 % hydrogen, 28% helium by everything else amounts to less than 2%.

The sun converts hydrogen to helium in its core.

Approximately every 11 years, the sun reverses its overall magnetic polarity: its north magnetic pole becomes a south pole, and vice versa.

The sun rotates on its axis once every 25.38 Earth days or 609.12 hours.

A person weighing 150 pounds on Earth would weigh 4,200 pounds on the sun because the sun’s gravity is 28 times that of Earth.

Solar Flares and Solar Wind

Solar flares are jets of particles that burst from the sun and can disrupt satellite communications and knock out electricity on Earth.

The sun radiates heat and a steady stream of charged particles known as the solar wind, which blows about 280 miles (450 kilometers) per second throughout the solar system.

Comets

They have tails that can stretch for millions of Kilometers

Sometimes called dirty snowballs

Comets are small, icy rock bodies that did not get incorporated into the Sun or the planets. They comprise of a nucleus, coma, hydrogen cloud, dust tail, and ion tail.

Comets are spectacular sights in the night sky.

Comets have orbits that bring them close to the sun, then out to the far ends of the system and back.

One famous comet is Halley’s Comet

Also called long-haired stars

As a comet passes closer to the sun, it heats the ice and the gases released make the tail that is seen.

Asteroids

These are rocky bodies that orbit the sun

Irregular in shape

They can be all sizes

The smallest size is the size of a pebble

Most orbit the sun between Jupiter and Mars

Asteroids that pass close to Earth are called NEO’s or Near Earth Objects.

Asteroids Continued

Asteroids

Asteroids have hit every planet in our solar system. Most space rocks that hit Earth burn up or slow down enough not to cause serious damage. Evidence of what happens when they don't can be seen at Barringer Crater in Arizona - a giant hole almost 1.6 km (1 mile) across and 175 meters (570 feet) deep.

Meteors

Often called shooting stars

Created by tiny particles the size of a grain of sand

Most burn up in Earth’s atmosphere, sometimes they are large enough to hit the Earth’s surface before completely burning up. These are called meteorites- they are the surviving meteors.

Meteroid is when a meteor travels through Earth’s atmosphere(while it is burning up)

Dwarf Planets

Pluto, Ceres and Eres are considered dwarf Planets in our solar system

dwarf planets lack the gravitational muscle to sweep up or scatter objects near their orbits.

They end up orbiting the sun in zones of similar objects such as the asteroid and Kuiper belts

They are not a moon

Ceres, Eres and Pluto are dwarf planets in our solar system

Terrestrial Planets

Terrestrial planet is a planet which has solid surfaces and is primarily composed of silicate racks and/or metals. There are 4 known terrestrial planets in our solar system – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, which are all inner planets and one terrestrial dwarf planet, Ceres, located in the asteroid belt.

Mercury

First planet from the sun

Mercury is only slightly larger than Earth's Moon.

Mercury has very little atmosphere to stop impacts

covered with craters

Mercury's dayside is super-heated by the sun, but at night temperatures drop hundreds of degrees below freezing

Ice may even exist in craters

Mercury's egg-shaped orbit takes it around the sun every 88 days

Extreme surface temperatures

Has no moons

Venus

2nd planet from the sun

Very thick atmosphere of Carbon Dioxide

Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system due to the greenhouse effect

Venus has no moons

It is always cloudy on Venus

Similar to the size of Earth

Has no moons

Earth

Third planet from the sun

Small, rocky planet

Earth is about 4.5 billion years old

Made up of water and land masses called continents

Frozen icecaps at its polar regions

Earth has a protective atmosphere composed of predominately nitrogen and oxygen

Has a natural magnetic field which helps shield Earth from harmful solar radiation

Earth has one moon

Mars

Fourth planet from the sun

Half the diameter of Earth

Very thin atmosphere which makes it a cold planet

Mars has two moons

Gas Giants/Ice Giants

Sometimes called Jovian- Jupiter like planets

Gas Giants/Ice Giants have many moons that orbit them.

As these planets grew in the early solar system, they were able to capture objects with their large gravitational fields.

Jupiter

Has 50 known moons

Fifth planet from the sun

Largest planet in the solar system

300 times larger than Earth

Giant ball of liquid hydrogen and helium

Average temperature is -153 degrees Celsius

One of the Gas Giants

Saturn

Sixth planet from the sun

Gas Giant with temperatures as low as -185 degrees Celsius

Has 52 known moons

Composed of hydrogen and helium

Saturn has a huge system of rings made of chunks of ice and rock

Uranus

Seventh planet from the sun

Considered an Ice Giant

Has 27 known moons

Uranus' blue-green color is the result of atmospheric methane, made of hydrogen and methane

Smallest of the Gas Giants, it is only 4x the diameter of Earth

Temperature is around -214 degrees Celsius

It has ten thin rings going around it

Neptune

Eighth planet from the sun and last Gas Giant/Ice giant

Considered an Ice Giant

Has 13 known moons

The ice giant Neptune was the first planet located through mathematical predictions rather than through regular observations of the sky. (Galileo had recorded it as a fixed star during observations with his small telescope in 1612 and 1613.)

Neptune orbits the sun once every 165 years

Temperature -225 degrees Celsius

Neptune

Interestingly, the unusual elliptical orbit of the dwarf planet Pluto brings Pluto inside Neptune's orbit for a 20-year period out of every 248 Earth years

Neptune's blue color is the result of methane in the atmosphere

Neptune is a little smaller than Uranus

Significant Dates

Significant DatesHuygens' image of Titan surface. The rocks are about the size of pebbles.

1610: Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius independently discover four moons orbiting Jupiter. The moons are known as the Galilean satellites in honor of Galileo's discovery, which also confirms the planets in our solar system orbit the sun.

1877:Asaph Hall discovers Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos.

1969: Astronaut Neil Armstrong is the first of 12 men to walk on the surface of Earth's Moon.

1980: Voyager 1 instruments detect signs of surface features beneath the hazy atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

2005: The European Space Agency's Huygens probe lands on the surface of Titan. It is the first spacecraft to successfully land on a moon beyond Earth's own moon.

2000-present Using improved ground-based telescopes, orbiting observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope and spacecraft observations, scientists find dozens of new moons in our solar system.