The Center of It All. The Sun. The Sun’s distance from the Earth is 150 million km (93 million miles). The Sun. http:// science.nationalgeographic.com /science/space/solar-system/sun-article/. Fun Facts. The sun in the largest object on the solar system.
The Sun’s distance from the Earth is 150 million km (93 million miles)
The sun in the largest object on the solar system.
Approximately 109 planet Earths would fit on the surface of the sun and more than one million planets Earths would fit inside the sun.
The sun is often personified in mythologies: Greeks call is Helios and the Romans call it Sol. In Japan it is called Amaterasu.
The sun is 70 % hydrogen, 28% helium by everything else amounts to less than 2%.
The sun converts hydrogen to helium in its core.
Approximately every 11 years, the sun reverses its overall magnetic polarity: its north magnetic pole becomes a south pole, and vice versa.
The sun rotates on its axis once every 25.38 Earth days or 609.12 hours.
A person weighing 150 pounds on Earth would weigh 4,200 pounds on the sun because the sun’s gravity is 28 times that of Earth.
Solar flares are jets of particles that burst from the sun and can disrupt satellite communications and knock out electricity on Earth.
The sun radiates heat and a steady stream of charged particles known as the solar wind, which blows about 280 miles (450 kilometers) per second throughout the solar system.
They have tails that can stretch for millions of Kilometers
Sometimes called dirty snowballs
Comets are small, icy rock bodies that did not get incorporated into the Sun or the planets. They comprise of a nucleus, coma, hydrogen cloud, dust tail, and ion tail.
Comets are spectacular sights in the night sky.
Comets have orbits that bring them close to the sun, then out to the far ends of the system and back.
One famous comet is Halley’s Comet
Also called long-haired stars
As a comet passes closer to the sun, it heats the ice and the gases released make the tail that is seen.
These are rocky bodies that orbit the sun
Irregular in shape
They can be all sizes
The smallest size is the size of a pebble
Most orbit the sun between Jupiter and Mars
Asteroids that pass close to Earth are called NEO’s or Near Earth Objects.
Asteroids have hit every planet in our solar system. Most space rocks that hit Earth burn up or slow down enough not to cause serious damage. Evidence of what happens when they don't can be seen at Barringer Crater in Arizona - a giant hole almost 1.6 km (1 mile) across and 175 meters (570 feet) deep.
Often called shooting stars
Created by tiny particles the size of a grain of sand
Most burn up in Earth’s atmosphere, sometimes they are large enough to hit the Earth’s surface before completely burning up. These are called meteorites- they are the surviving meteors.
Meteroid is when a meteor travels through Earth’s atmosphere(while it is burning up)
Pluto, Ceres and Eres are considered dwarf Planets in our solar system
dwarf planets lack the gravitational muscle to sweep up or scatter objects near their orbits.
They end up orbiting the sun in zones of similar objects such as the asteroid and Kuiper belts
They are not a moon
Ceres, Eres and Pluto are dwarf planets in our solar system
Terrestrial planet is a planet which has solid surfaces and is primarily composed of silicate racks and/or metals. There are 4 known terrestrial planets in our solar system – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, which are all inner planets and one terrestrial dwarf planet, Ceres, located in the asteroid belt.
First planet from the sun
Mercury is only slightly larger than Earth's Moon.
Mercury has very little atmosphere to stop impacts
covered with craters
Mercury's dayside is super-heated by the sun, but at night temperatures drop hundreds of degrees below freezing
Ice may even exist in craters
Mercury's egg-shaped orbit takes it around the sun every 88 days
Extreme surface temperatures
Has no moons
2nd planet from the sun
Very thick atmosphere of Carbon Dioxide
Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system due to the greenhouse effect
Venus has no moons
It is always cloudy on Venus
Similar to the size of Earth
Has no moons
Third planet from the sun
Small, rocky planet
Earth is about 4.5 billion years old
Made up of water and land masses called continents
Frozen icecaps at its polar regions
Earth has a protective atmosphere composed of predominately nitrogen and oxygen
Has a natural magnetic field which helps shield Earth from harmful solar radiation
Earth has one moon
Fourth planet from the sun
Half the diameter of Earth
Very thin atmosphere which makes it a cold planet
Mars has two moons
Sometimes called Jovian- Jupiter like planets
Gas Giants/Ice Giants have many moons that orbit them.
As these planets grew in the early solar system, they were able to capture objects with their large gravitational fields.
Has 50 known moons
Fifth planet from the sun
Largest planet in the solar system
300 times larger than Earth
Giant ball of liquid hydrogen and helium
Average temperature is -153 degrees Celsius
One of the Gas Giants
Sixth planet from the sun
Gas Giant with temperatures as low as -185 degrees Celsius
Has 52 known moons
Composed of hydrogen and helium
Saturn has a huge system of rings made of chunks of ice and rock
Seventh planet from the sun
Considered an Ice Giant
Has 27 known moons
Uranus' blue-green color is the result of atmospheric methane, made of hydrogen and methane
Smallest of the Gas Giants, it is only 4x the diameter of Earth
Temperature is around -214 degrees Celsius
It has ten thin rings going around it
Eighth planet from the sun and last Gas Giant/Ice giant
Considered an Ice Giant
Has 13 known moons
The ice giant Neptune was the first planet located through mathematical predictions rather than through regular observations of the sky. (Galileo had recorded it as a fixed star during observations with his small telescope in 1612 and 1613.)
Neptune orbits the sun once every 165 years
Temperature -225 degrees Celsius
Interestingly, the unusual elliptical orbit of the dwarf planet Pluto brings Pluto inside Neptune's orbit for a 20-year period out of every 248 Earth years
Neptune's blue color is the result of methane in the atmosphere
Neptune is a little smaller than Uranus
Significant DatesHuygens' image of Titan surface. The rocks are about the size of pebbles.
1610: Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius independently discover four moons orbiting Jupiter. The moons are known as the Galilean satellites in honor of Galileo's discovery, which also confirms the planets in our solar system orbit the sun.
1877:Asaph Hall discovers Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos.
1969: Astronaut Neil Armstrong is the first of 12 men to walk on the surface of Earth's Moon.
1980: Voyager 1 instruments detect signs of surface features beneath the hazy atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.
2005: The European Space Agency's Huygens probe lands on the surface of Titan. It is the first spacecraft to successfully land on a moon beyond Earth's own moon.
2000-present Using improved ground-based telescopes, orbiting observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope and spacecraft observations, scientists find dozens of new moons in our solar system.