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Clothing I Test Review. Safety. When passing shears and scissors always pass the handle first Keep fingers away from any moving parts of the machines Stop sewing if you are at all distracted. Clean up pins and needles when you are finished.

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  • When passing shears and scissors always pass the handle first
  • Keep fingers away from any moving parts of the machines
  • Stop sewing if you are at all distracted.
  • Clean up pins and needles when you are finished.
  • Discard pins and needles if they have punctured your skin.
the machine
The Machine
  • Feed dogs move the fabric during stitching
  • If the machine is threaded correctly, it will stitch evenly.
  • Seam allowance guides are lines located on the needle stitch plate that guide where the edge of your fabric should be.
  • The foot pedal controls how fast the feed dogs move the fabric through the machine. If you are going too fast you can always use the1/2 speed button
  • The hand wheel moves the needle up and down and controls the feed dogs. It should always be turned towards you.
the machine1
The Machine
  • Upper threads and bobbin threads interlock to form a stitch.
  • The Presser foot holds the fabric firmly in place against the feed dogs
  • The presser foot lifter/lever raises or lowers the presser foot
  • The thread tension controls the tightness or looseness of the thread
the machine2
The Machine
  • The bobbin case guides the lower thread into position for contact with the upper thread
  • Stitch length buttons control the number of stitches per inch, can be easily adjusted to perform a basting stitch, and is adjusted to stitch more stitches per inch when sewing an area that will have stress.
  • If the sewing machine is incorrectly threaded, the thread of the stitch will loop on the bottom layer of the fabric skip stitches, and unthread the needle
the machine3
The machine
  • Thread and lint trapped in the sewing machine can reduce the efficiency of the machine.
  • A bent, blunt, or incorrectly inserted or threaded needle is the main cause of skipped stitches.
  • When replacing the sewing machine needle, it is important that the groove side of the needle faces the thread and the needle be inserted to the top of the socket
the machine4
The Machine
  • Following the outside edge of the presser foot gives a seam allowance of ¼ inch
  • The length of stitch you select is determined by the fabric you are using, the purpose of the stitch, and the type of thread.
  • Before starting a row of stitching, the thread take-up lever should be at its highest point
  • Too keep the machine working well apply a drop of oil at each oiling point periodically, clean pieces of thread from the machine, remove the stitch/needle plate to clean the underside of the machine, and use canned air to remove lint.
  • Natural fibers come from plants and animals
    • Fibers that come from plants are called cellulosic
      • Cotton and linen are the most common cellulosic fibers
        • Cotton comes from the cotton plant
        • Linen comes from flax seeds
    • Fibers that come from animals are called protein
      • Wool and Silk are the most common protein fibers.
        • Wool comes from sheep
        • Silk comes from the silk worm
  • Man-made or manufactured fibers come from substances such as wood pulp and petroleum. Chemical engineers transform these substances into fibers with specific characteristics
    • Regenerated Cellulosic fibers are produced from wood pulp with a minimum of chemical steps
      • The most common Regenerated cellulosic fibers are rayon, acetate and triacetate.
    • Synthetic fibers are made from carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen molecules (chemicals)
      • The most common synthetic fibers are acrylic, nylon, polyester, and spandex
  • The generic fiber name must appear on the label of any garment or fabric sold.
  • You can not usually tell what fiber a fabric is made from by looking at it so it is always good to check the bolt of fabric before buying it.
natural fibers
Natural fibers
  • Cotton is recommended for beginning sewing projects. It is strong and durable, absorbent, and accepts dyes and prints easily. It is not wrinkle resistant
  • Cotton is usually the least expensive natural fiber.
  • Wool is the most naturally fire retardant fiber.
man made fibers
Man-made fibers
  • Synthetics are generally heat sensitive and should be pressed at low temperatures.
  • Synthetic fibers are less absorbent than natural fibers
  • Rayon is manufactured from the cellulose fibers found in plants.
  • Nylon was the first fiber produced from chemicals
  • Blends are created to utilize the positive characteristics of each fiber.
  • Often a blend is a combination of one natural and one synthetic fiber
  • Cotton and polyester blended create a fabric that is wrinkle resistant, stronger, and mildew resistant.
    • A cotton/polyester blend would be recommended for a summer clothing project.
clothing care
Clothing Care
  • Always follow the clothing care tag for care instructions.
  • When purchasing fabric check the information at the end of the bolt for care instructions.
  • Treat stains immediately for the best success at removal.
  • Stains may be permanently set by leaving the stain untreated for too long and applying heat of any kind
  • Removing stains:
    • Blood: Soak in cold water
    • Ink: Spray lightly with hair spray or sponge with rubbing alcohol
pressing and ironing
Pressing and Ironing
  • When Pressing use a lifting and lowering motion and check appropriate temperature settings
  • When ironing use a sliding motion
  • Press as you go means you press after each line of stitching and can make projects look more professional.
  • Plain straight seams are usually pressed open
  • A press cloth is used to protect your fabric from shine marks
  • Dark dull fabrics should be pressed on the wrong side of the fabric.
sewing tools
Sewing Tools
  • Pinking Shears are shears that create a zigzag pattern on the end of fabric and can be used to create a seam finish
  • Seam rippers are tools used to remove small stitches
  • A thimble is a small metal tool that you place on your finger to protect your fingers from needles
sewing tools1
Sewing Tools
  • Tape measures are used to measure fabric and take body measurements
  • Water soluble fabric pens/markers are used to mark/transfer pattern symbols
  • Shears are used to cut fabric from patterns
  • Rotary cutters can only be used to cut straight lines and must be used with a rotary mat and see-through ruler
sewing tools2
Sewing Tools
  • A seam gauge is used to measure short distances, six inches or less
  • A pressing cloth protects the fabric from shiny marks made by an iron
fabric construction
Fabric Construction
  • The selvage edge is the edge that won’t fray, it is the tightly woven edges on two of the opposite sides of the fabric, and it is parallel to the lengthwise grains.
  • The lengthwise and crosswise direction of the fabric is the grain
  • Crosswise- threads perpendicular to the selvage edge
  • Lengthwise- threads parallel to the selvage edge
  • Bias is the diagonal angle of the fabric. Patterns are cut on the bias to allow for extra stretch.
  • Pattern layout options are found on the pattern guide sheet
  • Symbols including grainline, notches, buttons and buttonholes are found on the pattern pieces
fabric preparation
Fabric Preparation
  • The FIRST step in preparing a washable fabric for sewing is preshrinking.
  • When preshrinking a washable fabric it is important to wash and dry the fabric the same way it will be laundered
pattern placement layout
Pattern Placement/Layout
  • One-way or directional fabric means that the tops of the pattern pieces must always be the same direction
  • The straight of grain arrow should always be parallel to the selvage edge
  • When checking to see if a pattern piece is placed on grain, measure the distance from both ends of the Grain line arrow to the selvage edge.
  • When pinning the pattern to fabric, pattern pieces should all be placed on the fabric before pinning any of them in place
pattern placement layout1
Pattern Placement/Layout
  • When pinning a pattern onto the fabric, pins should be placed several inches apart, in the seam allowance
  • When cutting pattern pieces out with shears use short, even strokes and keep the fabric flat.
  • Transfer markings to the fabric after the pattern pieces are cut out, but before they are removed
pattern terms
Pattern Terms
  • Ease is allowances made by pattern companies for fit
  • Grading/layering is trimming each layer of a seam allowance in varying amounts to reduce bulk
  • Stay-stitching is stitching done through a single thickness of fabric, to add stability and prevent stretching during construction
pattern terms1
Pattern terms
  • Topstitching is stitching done along the edge of fabric to improve/ enhance the appearance and add durability
  • Stitching placed 1/8” or less from the edge is called edgestitching
  • The fabric outside the stitching line is the seam allowance
  • A small short cut made in the seam allowance of a curved seam, to help the seam lay flat is called clipping
pattern symbols
Pattern symbols
  • Straight of grain arrow:
  • Place on fold:
  • Notches:
  • Buttonhole/Button placement:
  • Circles, dots, and squares:
  • Tucks and Darts:
  • Directional sewing lines
    • (sewing in direction of the pattern arrows)
pattern symbols1
Pattern Symbols
  • A broken or dashed line on a pattern is the marking for the stitching line
  • On one size patterns the heavy solid line on the pattern indicates the cutting line
  • The standard seam allowance for a woven fabric is 5/8-inch
  • A standard seam is stitched with right sides together
  • Stitching with the grain prevents the fabric from stretching
  • Stitching with the grain creates the threads to be smoothed down in the direction of the fabric grain
  • When beginning a seam stitch a few stitches and then backstitch to the top of the seam
stitch length
Stitch Length
  • Machine basting is 6 to 8 stitches per inch.
  • Regular stitching is 10 to 12 stitches per inch.
  • Reinforcement stitching is 15-20 stitches per inch
using pins
Using Pins
  • Place pins at right angles to the seam
  • Placing pinheads towards the outside edge
  • Stitching over pins can cause uneven stitching and damage the needle
  • Ball point needles are used for knit fabrics
  • Universal needles are used for most fabrics including woven.
  • Sharp needles are used for heavy fabrics like denim.
seam finishes
Seam Finishes
  • Seam finishes are methods of finishing raw edges of seam allowances to prevent fraying
  • Serging- Serged open and serged closed
  • Clean finishing- folding the seam allowance and stitching close to the edge of the fold
  • Stitch and pink- using pinking shears
  • Zigzag- using the sewing machine to make a zigzag stitch on the edge of the fabric.
sewing procedures
Sewing procedures
  • Casing are used to thread elastic through to help fit a garment, a drawstring through, belt webbing or stretch cording through. Casings should be ¼” wider than the elastic.
  • You miter the corners when a pocket is square or a rectangular shaped to make the corners meet at right angles
  • In seam pockets can usually be added to a pattern, it can be eliminated from a pattern, and it is often made with a lighter weight fabric.
sewing procedures1
Sewing Procedures
  • To complete a standard machine hem, fold the fabric ¼” then fold up and stitch by the inside fold
sewing procedures2
Sewing Procedures
  • The purpose of making a shank when sewing on a button is to let the buttonhole lay smooth under the button without strain.
  • It is best to position buttons after buttonholes are made.
  • A buttonhole length is the diameter of the button plus the thickness.