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Designing Manageable Protocols Andrew Cormack Chief Security Adviser UKERNA
Why Manage Networks? • Networks have production uses • Teaching, assessment, administration, video conferencing, … • Time-critical, bandwidth-criticial, reliability-critical • Bandwidth is finite • Some things are more important than others • Different priorities in different organisations • Important things should have priority • Helps if priorities are written down!
Management Tools? • Manager told – “Service X is important” • Manager sees – IP packets • Packets have • Source & destination address • Source & destination port • Initial TCP packet has a direction • How to map packets to services? • Need help from protocol design
Management Requirements • Identifiable • Services give rise to recognisable network flows • Controllable • Services can be permitted on some network segments • Services can be denied from some network segments • Non-hazardous • My use of a service must not be a hazard to others • My use of a service should not be a hazard to me
Management Assumptions • Least-worst assumptions • Port number identifies service • E.g. port 80 = web • IP address(es) identify location on network • Source is client; destination is server [TCP only] • Dangerous assumptions • IP address identifies person • Port <1024 means trusted
I [C [H [ I [C [H ? ? 80 ? Case Studies – HTTP www.site
I ?C [H x I [C [H ? ? 21 ? 20 ? Case Studies – FTP ftp.site
I xC xH [ I xC xH x ? 21 ? ? ? Case Studies – passive FTP ftp.site
I xC xH x I xC xH x 6697-6701 + more ? ? Variable UDP ports 4444-8888 Case Studies – P2P (Napster) 64.124.41/24
Future developments • Dynamic address allocation • DHCP or NAT • Must align address allocation with managed groups • IP version 6 • Little change to manageability • Port numbers may be buried in a chain of headers • Encryption may make application layer invisible • Mobility is extreme dynamic address allocation
Conclusion: Protocols need • Identifiable traffic flows • Well defined, appropriate use of reserved ports • Clarity over relationship between hosts • Direction of initiation must be apparent • Support for layered protection • Expect to meet firewalls; work with proxies • Application proxies may be only option
Give managers options • YES/NO is not enough