Ecologically sustainable industrial parks: An oxymoron? Raymond Cote Professor Emeritus and Senior Fellow Eco-Efficiency Centre Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada Presented at University of Alberta September 2010
Outline of presentation Rationale for a new model Terminology EIP or IS models EIP standards Characteristics of EIPs Guidance for planners and designers References
“The world we have created today as a result of our thinking thus far, has problems which cannot be solved by thinking the way we thought when we created them.” Albert Einstein
Why ecological sustainability? “Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history This has resulted in a substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth The changes that have been made to ecosystems have contributed to substantial net gains in human well-being and economic development But these gains have been achieved at growing costs that, unless addressed, will substantially diminish the benefits that future generations obtain from ecosystems.” UNMillenium Ecosystem Assessment
Status of Ecosystem Services UN Millenium Ecosystem Assessment
Our current industrial system appears to have been designed to: “ put billions of pounds of toxic materials into the air, water and soil every year, produce materials so dangerous that they will require constant vigilance from future generations, result in gigantic amounts of waste, put valuable materials in holes all over the planet, where they cannot be easily retrieved, require thousands of complex regulations – not to keep people and natural systems safe, but rather to keep them from being poisoned too quickly, measure productivity by how few people are working, create prosperity by digging up or cutting down natural resources and then burying or burning them, erode the diversity of species and cultural practices.” McDonough and Braungart,2002
Nature as model Renewable energy is the main source of power for living systems In natural systems, there is no waste in the sense of matter that cannot be recycled or absorbed constructively Concentrated toxic materials are generated and used locally A major portion of the energy flows in a system are consumed in decomposition processes that make nutrients available Ecosystems are resilient and relatively stable because of the biodiversity of species organized in complex web of relationships Each individual of a species in an ecosystem acts independently, yet its activity patterns mesh cooperatively with those of other species
Industrial ecology The study of the physical, chemical, and biological interactions and interrelationships both within and between industrial and biological systems. National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education Industrial ecology is ecological in that it (1) places human activity -- industry in the very broadest sense -- in the larger context of the biophysical environment from which we obtain resources and into which we place our wastes, and (2) looks to the natural world for models of highly efficient use of resources, energy and byproducts.Journal of Industrial Ecology
Terminology Industrial parks: ‘a large tract of land, sub-divided, and developed for the use of several firms simultaneously, distinguished by its shareable infrastructure and close proximity of firms’ (Peddle 1993). Eco-industrial parks: A short form forecologically sustainable industrial park. In addition to satisfying the definition of an industrial park it is “a community of businesses that cooperate with each other and with the local community to efficiently share resources (information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure and local habitat), leading to economic gains, gains in environmental quality, and equitable enhancement of human resources for the business and local community” (PCSD, 1996) Industrial symbiosis: Traditionally separate industries engaged in a collective approach involving physical exchanges of materials, energy, water and/or by-products (Chertow, 2000). By-product synergy: A synonym for industrial symbiosis
EIP models in the literature Kalundborg model – multiple sectors and sizes of industries where by-products are exchanged ( also sector based) Burnside model – multiple sectors of SMEs where “scavenger and decomposer” companies cycle materials, products and by-products Resource recovery model – The emphasis of the park is on recovery and recycling of wastes
Assessment None of these are EIPs, in my view, as they focus largely on industrial symbiosis. They incorporate few other ecological functions in their design and operations.
Environmental Management Continuum for Industrial Parks Environmentally Balanced Industrial Clusters (Industrial Symbiosis) Standard Industrial Park Environmental Industrial Park Eco-Labeled Industrial Park Eco-Efficient Park Eco-Industrial Park Clusters of companies taking account of ecological limits, using resource-efficient infrastructure, buildings and processes, networking purchases and a balance of producers, scavengers & decomposers A labelling scheme (PALME) developed in France to recognize an organized set of enhanced environmental practices and amenities in industrial parks and zones Clusters of industries co-located such that the by-products of one become the inputs or materials for other businesses or industries to minimize waste and dissipation of resources Clusters of manufacturers of environmental products, providers of environmental services and developers of environmental technologies Clusters of companies working to reduce resource intensity, control pollution and minimize collective waste outputs Concentrated industrial and business activity within a defined planning boundary with organized infrastructure
EIP standards Port of Cape Charles, Virginia Koenig’s criteria for Thai EIPs (proposed) Devens EcoStar criteria Chinese EIP standard Oree’s PALME label and guide LEED standard for neighborhood developments
Innovista EIP, Hinton, Alberta Principles Ecology as central organizing theme Community linkages Distributed, renewable energy systems Waste as resource Strategic collaboration among businesses Efficient and effective infrastructure Efficient buildings Integrated ecological design principles Siting and building orientation Landscaping using indigenous plants Energy systems based on renewable sources Water, stormwater and wastewater systems designed for recovery and reuse Building design and materials Recycling of materials
Other Canadian initiatives Fort McMurray TaigaNova EI park, Alberta (developing) Kaizer Meadows eco-business park,N.S. (developing) Debert eco-industrial park, N.S. (transforming) Ross EIP Regina, Sask. (transforming) Pearson eco-business zone, Ont. (transforming) Ontario East Wood Centre and EIP, Ont. (developing)
Characteristics of an EIP Cote and Cohen-Rosenthal (1997) suggested some characteristics for an industrial park operating as an ecosystem: I planning with the ecological capacity of the area in mind, paying particular attention to the assimilative capacity of the air, water (surface and ground), and connectivity; energy production based increasingly on renewable resources, and at least increase the efficiency of current energy production and use through cogeneration and district heating; buildings designed and built to optimize conservation of heat and water while enabling disassembly for reuse, and recycling at the end-of-life; landscaping using indigenous resources and designed to support building heating and cooling; industries and businesses selected based in part on their compatibility for symbiosis; management encouraging a web of businesses involving not only producers and consumers, but also scavengers and decomposers to support cycling of materials; redundancy in materials sources built into the structure of the system; water recovered, cleaned and reused; a common information management system which would facilitate networking.
Designing eco-industrial parks: key strategies An appreciation of and restoration of the area’s ecological functions –ecology A survey of the nature of companies –diversity A survey of flows of materials and energy and generation of by-products–industrial metabolism Techniques for improving industrial, commercial and institutional uses of energy and materials –resource efficiency Techniques for reducing waste disposal–recovery, remanufacturing and recycling Tools for assessing and using alternative processes, products –life cycle analysis and design for environment
Planning and design The characteristics of an EIP have not yet been agreed upon by all agencies, researchers and developers. In my view, they require an ecological or systemic approach -this means designing an industrial park which does not compromise or result in the loss of ecological services but rather incorporates them into planning and design. This is particularly important for regulating and supporting services but could also involve provisioning services.
Where natural wetlands are not available, build engineered aquatic ecosystems which use sunlight, bacteria, plants, and other aquatic life to break down toxics, concentrate metals and treat organic material Use ground source heat pumps, solar walls for space heating and install small wind turbines for lighting. Collect rainwater and snowmelt for fire fighting, irrigating plants, flushing toilets and wherepossible, process water Develop composting for landscaping resources and nutrient cycling Infrastructure examples
Conclusions Identify local champions and get commitment for the long term Stakeholders need to be engaged early & throughout the process Use expertise from various disciplines, especially ecologists and ecological designers Applying ecological thinking to infrastructure eg water supply, wastewater treatment, energy generation, transportation, solid waste & recycling
References Bossilkov, A. and R VanBerkel. 2004. Industrial ecology in practice in Kwinana: Waste reduction and resource efficiency through industry collaboration. Waste and Recycle Conf. Australia. Brand, E. and T. deBriijn. 1998. Industrial ecology at the regional level: The building of sustainable industrial estates. 7th Int Conf of the Greening of Industry Network. Rome. Centre of Excellence in Cleaner Production. 2007. Regional Resource Synergies for Sustainable Development in Heavy Industrial Areas: An Overview of Opportunities and Experiences. Curtin Univ. of Technology. Perth. 139p. Cote, R and J. Hall. 1994. Industrial parks as ecosystems. J. Cleaner Production. Cote, R.P. and T. Smolenaars. 1997. Supporting pillars for industrial ecosystems. J. Cleaner Production. 5 (1/2): 67-74 Cote, R.P. and E. Cohen-Rosenthal. 1998. Designing eco-industrial parks: A synthesis of some experiences. J. Cleaner Production.6 (3/4): 181-188
References Gibbs, D, P. Deutz and A. Proctor. 2005. Industrial ecology and eco-industrial development: A potential paradigm for local and regional development. Regional Studies 39 (2): 171-183. Haskins, C. 2006. Multi-disciplinary investigation of eco-industrial parks. Systems Engineering. 9(4) 313-330 Heeres, R.R., W.J. Vermeulen and F.B. deWalle. 2004. Eco-industrial park initiatives in the USA and the Netherlands: First lessons. J. Cleaner Production 12(8-10):985-996 Gibbs.D and P. Deutz. 2007. Reflections on implementing industrial ecology through eco-industrial park development. J. Cleaner Production 15 (2007) 1683-1695 Heeres, R.R., W.J. Vermeulen and F.B. deWalle. 2004. Eco-industrial park initiatives in the USA and the Netherlands: First lessons. J. Cleaner Production 12(8-10):985-996 Jacobsen,N.B. 2001. Understanding the evolution of industrial symbiotic networks: The case of Kalundborg. ISIE Conf. Leiden Lowe, E.A. 1997. Creating by-product resource exchanges: Strategies foe eco-industrial parks. J. Cleaner Production.5 (1/2):57-65
References McManus P. and D.Gibbs. 2008. Industrial ecosystems? The use of tropes in the literature of industrial ecology and eco-industrial parks. Prog. in Human Geography. 32(4):525-540 Nemerow, N. L. 1995. Zero Pollution for Industry: Waste Minimization through Industrial Complexes. New YorK: John Wiley and Sons. Roberts,B.H. 2004. The application of industrial ecology principles and planning guidelines for the development of eco-industrial parks: An Australian case study. J. Cleaner Production 12 (8-10):997-1010 UNEP, 197. Environmental Management of Industrial Estates. Tech. Rpt 39. Paris: TIE-UNEP. Zhu.Q. and R.P.Cote. 2004. Integrating green supply chain management into an embryonic eco-industrial development: A case study of the Guitang Group. J Cleaner Production. 12 (8/10): 1025-1036.
Appendix 1Guidance for developing EIPs There is no shortage of guidance documents for the development and operation of eco-industrial parks. Some are: Designing and Operating Industrial Parks as Ecosystems, Cote et al Canada. 1994. Discovering Industrial Ecology: An Executive Briefing and Sourcebook, Lowe et al. United States. 1997 Eco-industrial Park Handbook.for Asian Developing Nations. Lowe et al.. Asian Development Bank and Indigo Development. 2001. Environmental Management for Industrial Estates. Information and training resources UNEP. 2001 Planning for sustainable industry development. Roberts,B. Australian Planning Institute. 2001 Eco-industrial Strategies: Unleashing Synergy between Economic Development and the Environment. Cohen-Rosenthal et al. United States. 2003 Mettre en oeuvre une démarche d’écologie industrielle sur un parc d’activités.. Oree, France. 2008.