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Atomic Theory. History of the Discoveries Related to the Atom Mr. Addison. Timeline of Atomic Theory. 450 BC 1800’s \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_. Democritus: matter was made of “atoms”.

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atomic theory

Atomic Theory

History of the Discoveries Related to the Atom

Mr. Addison

timeline of atomic theory
Timeline of Atomic Theory

450 BC 1800’s



matter was made of “atoms”


proposed 5 components to an Atomic Theory.

dalton s theory foundation of future investigations
Dalton’s Theory: Foundation of Future Investigations
  • All matter consists of tiny particles.
  • Atoms are indestructible and unchangeable.
  • Elements are characterized by the mass of their atoms.
  • When elements react, their atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios.
  • When elements react, their atoms sometimes combine in more than one simple, whole-number ratio.
atomic theory 1897 1920
Atomic Theory 1897-1920


Planck quanta 1901

Bohr quantum model 1913

Rutherford nucleus 1911

Thompson negative charge in the atom 1897

contributions to modern atomic theory
Contributions to Modern Atomic Theory

De Broglie Wave nature of matter



Gell-Mann Quarks 1962

Heisenberg e- is a wave and a particle 1926

Schrodinger e- orbits as a wave 1926

Chadwick neutron 1932

experiments that characterized particles of the atom
Experiments that Characterized Particles of the Atom
  • Thompson Cathode Ray tube:
    • Electrons are negative in charge
  • Rutherford’s Gold Foil:
    • Nucleus contains protons and is very small/dense
  • Bohr model:
    • Electrons travel in certain paths
particles of the atom to date
Particles of the Atom to date:
  • Nucleus
    • Protons = p+ = 3 quarks
    • Neutrons= n0 = 3 quarks
  • Electron Cloud
    • Electrons =e- (particle/wave)

Held together by a force called : Gluon

types of quarks determine charge http nobelprize org educational games physics matter 1 html
Types of Quarks Determine Charge

Quarks = up (+2/3) and down (-1/3)

p+ = 2ups and 1 downn0 = 2 down and 1 up

+2 +2-1 = +1 -1-1+2 = 0

3 3 3 3 3 3

Gluon forces between quarks

predicting the location of an electron in an atom
Predicting the Location of an Electron in an Atom:
  • Bohr proposed 4 characteristics to consider to predict the location of an electron.
    • l = the distance from the nucleus
    • m = the shape of the orbital in which the e- occupies. (s,p,d,f)
    • n = axis the orbital occupies. (x, y, z)
    • s =spin of the e- (+1/2 , -1/2)
distance from the nucleus
Distance from the nucleus:
  • Levels 1-7: When looking at the periodic table, can be determined by the period number.








shape of the orbital on the x y z axis
Shape of the Orbital on the x,y,z Axis
  • The number of electrons in a particular region determines the shape.

s shape 2e- p shape 6e-

shape of the orbital on the x y z axis1
Shape of the Orbital on the x,y,z Axis

d shape 10e- f shape 14e-

spin of the electron
Spin of the Electron
do electrons behave as a particle or as wave
Do Electrons behave as a particle or as wave?

Definition of Light:

einstein and bohr
Einstein and Bohr





electron behavior as it moves to other energy levels
Electron behavior as it moves to other energy levels.
  • This emitted energy is equal to the difference between the high and low energy levels, and may be seen as light.

Light emission tutorial

electrons are particles photons
Electrons are Particles / Photons
  • Electrons travel in discreet packets called photons.
  • To describe these unique packets or quantities of energy the term “quanta” is used.
  • Every element on the periodic table is made up of atoms with a unique signature of spectral lines