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  1. Frequency of Hearing Defect and Ear Abnormalities in Newborns Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Royan Institute Ahmadi S.E (M.Sc)1,3* Mozafari R. (M.D)1 Shahzadehfazeli S.A (M.D)1,2,3 Gourabi H.(Ph.D)2 Nateghi M.R. (M.D)1,3 Ashrafi M. (M.D)4 Jarollahi F (M.Sc) 5 Afsharpur S (B.Sc.) 1 Kouhpayehzadeh J.(M.D) 6 1-Child Health and Development Research Center, ACECR, Tehran, Iran 2-Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran 3-Iranian Biological Recourse Center, Tehran, Iran 4-Department of Endocrinology and Female Infertility, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran 5-Department of Audiology, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran Medical Science and Health Services, Tehran, Iran 6-Faculty of Medicine, Tehran Medical Science and Health Services, Tehran, Iran Objectives Methods Hearing defect is most congenital abnormality in newborns. The prevalence of which is 28 times more than that of phenylketonuria, 8 times more than that of hypothyroidism, 5 times more than that of cystic fibrosis, and 20 times more than hemoglobinopathy. From 1000 living birth, 1- 6 cases have a kind of hearing defect. Hearing defect in infant result in severe disorders in communication, social, emotional, and cognitional development and can lead to severe suppression of educational and academic activity. 80% of lingual abilities are developed up to first 18 month of age. Hearing loss must be diagnosed in first months of childhood so that interventional therapy could be performed at designated and given time. According to this fact, the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing emphasize on early hearing detection and intervention programs before 6th month of infancy. Approximately one million children have been born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) world-wide. Follow-up studies on the health and the development of children conceived by ART are mandatory to assess the safety of ART. The results of the research conducted in the world are controversial about congenital anomalies in this group of newborns. Some researches reveal the high prevalence of congenital disorders in these newborns and other studies indicate equal prevalence of congenital anomalies in newborns conceived by assisted reproductive techniques and normal-fertilized newborns. In a descriptive, cross-sectional, non-randomized study, the status of hearing and ear abnormalities was assessed in 300 newborns conceived by ART at Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran. This study was performed over a sixteen month period. Data were collected from parents, otoscopic examinations and transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) tests of the newborns. The external ear was assessed by otoscopic examination, followed by the TEOAE test (an objective test that does not need the infant’s collaboration) which was performed by an audiologist. In this test, the OAE wave was registered after a click (stimulus) at 5-20 millisecond intervals with an 82 dB SPL altitude. Data were analyzed by statistical tests. Results Conclusions This study showed that, 2 cases (0.66%) had bilateral malformation in auricle and no any cases had external ear canal malformation. 2 cases (0.66%) had unilateral perforation of tympanic membrane, 3 cases (1.00%) in left ear and 2 cases (0.66%) in right ear had unilateral retraction of tympanic membrane, 8 cases (2.66%) had bilateral retraction of tympanic membrane, 1 (0.33%) case had unilateral tympanic membrane inflammation, 1 (0.33%) case had bilateral tympanic membrane inflammation and 1 (0.33%) case had bilateral obstruction of external ear canal by wax. This study shows that the hearing and ear screening in newborns conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques is contemplative. The present research emphasizes the profitability of continual check up in these newborn infants. These findings emphasize that newborns who born by ART techniques (particularly who are preterm) need to early evaluation and screening for diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss as soon as possible for preventing of speech, communication and learning disorders. References