Mannerism. 1525 - 1600. Between the HIGH RENAISSANCE & the BAROQUE era, ART, especially Italian art, developed into a style known as MANNERISM . Mannerism was a deliberate revolt by artists against the goals of the Renaissance.
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1525 - 1600
Why was the flawless representation of nature & the human body, the rational & harmonious designs, and the classical balance of the High Renaissance rejected?
MANNERSIM favored emotion over reason, dissonance over harmony, and imagination over reality.
People were beginning to think the church offered meaningless rituals, “bought” pardons for sins, and consisted of clergy who abused their power, lived lavishly and immorally.
People’s respect for priests, monks and popes weakened. There was a clear distrust and dislike of the clergy.
Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church eventually led to the religious movement called the Protestant Reformation and brought changes in religion and politics across Europe.
Early reformers believed the church should give up earthly possessions (views which were unpopular by church officials). These early reformers were removed from their positions, excommunicated by the pope, arrested and burned at the stake.
Martin Luther publicly criticized the church in his Ninety-Five Theses (which he nailed to church doors to act as public bulletins). He insisted that God’s grace cannot be won by money, and declared the only head of the church was Jesus, not the pope. He insisted that people should be their own interpreters of scripture.
Desire for reform grew. The pope expelled him from the church and he was declared an outlaw. There were “protests” against hi2 writings – Protestant.
These and other ideas spread across Europe. Protestant Reformation spread to England when King Henry VIII declared himself head of the Church of England after the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine.
Deposition,Jacopo Pontormo c. 1528
Madonna with the Long Neck, 1535, Parmigianino
Greek born painter, sculptor, and architect who settled in Spain and is regarded as the first great artist of Spain. He was known as El Greco (the Greek), but his real name was Domenikos Theotocopoulos
El Greco, Holy Trinity, 1577
Even the stable, pyramidal compositions of Renaissance sculpture take on anew twist
Renaissance: calm, classical beauty, rational design with stable pyramidal composition
MANNERISM showing twisting, emotional turmoil & off-balanced composition
Madonna with the Long Neck,
Deposition from the Cross
Gates of Paradise