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Information Superiority Workshop II: Focus on Metrics Groups I and II: Attributes and Metrics for Awareness and Shared Awareness. Group Chairs: John J. Garstka, JCS/J6Q Dr. Richard Hayes, EBR, Inc. Dr. Larry Wiener, OPNAV/N6C. Final Report: 5 July 2000. Overview.

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slide1

Information Superiority Workshop II: Focus on Metrics Groups I and II: Attributes and Metrics forAwareness and Shared Awareness

Group Chairs:

John J. Garstka, JCS/J6Q

Dr. Richard Hayes, EBR, Inc.

Dr. Larry Wiener, OPNAV/N6C

Final Report: 5 July 2000

overview
Overview
  • Conceptual Framework and Definitions
  • Reference Model
  • Application of the Reference Model
  • Summary
conceptual framework
Conceptual Framework
  • A Conceptual Framework provides:
    • Way of thinking about Information/IS/NCW
    • Language to talk about Information/IS/NCW
    • Set of measures to quantify the nature and impacts of Information/IS/NCW
  • A Conceptual Framework accelerates progress and helps us get the most out of experiments and research activities
  • A “Reference Model” is a key component of a conceptual framework
terms of reference
Terms of Reference

speed

distance per unit time

mph, kph

mph in U.S.

air pressure

value of time

Attribute of Interest:

• Variable that is key to understanding.

Metric:

• An operational definition of an attribute.

Measure:

• A specific application of a metric.

Standard:

• The agreed to unit of and approach to

measuring an attribute.

Indicant:

•A surrogate measure used for

practical reasons.

Value

•A relative measure of worth

battlespace

Information

Awareness

Knowledge

Battlespace
  • Battlespace Information results from the fusion of key elements of information which characterize the battlespace
    • Explicit Information (e.g. position of forces, geography, and weather)
    • Requires Little Interpretation
    • Can be communicated quickly and easily
  • Battlespace Awareness involves the identification of patterns in the situation derived from perceived Battlespace Information and a priori Knowledge
  • Battlespace Knowledge yields predictive ability
    • Extrapolation of situation awareness

Network-intensive

People-intensive

Requires Knowledge-Based Processes and Workforce

candidate definition
Candidate Definition
  • Relative Information Advantage
    • An advantage that one force establishes over another force in the information domain.
    • The advantage is not measured in an absolute sense, but rather with respect to the information needs of both forces
    • Metrics are applicable at the tactical, operational, and strategic level
candidate definition7
Candidate Definition
  • Tactical Information Superiority
    • The ability to establish and maintain a relative information advantage in a specified area of the battlespace, for a specified period of time, in support of a specified mission area
overview8
Overview
  • Conceptual Framework and Definitions
  • Reference Model
  • Application of the Reference Model
  • Summary
domains
Domains

World View

Body of Personal Knowledge

Experience/ Training

Individual Capabilities

Cognitive Domain

Information Domain

  • Situation
  • Understanding
  • Awareness
  • Assessment

Knowledge of Situation

Information

Data

Human

Perception

Reality

reference model conceptual framework
Reference Model: Conceptual Framework

The Cognitive Domain

The Information Domain

The Physical Domain

reference model conceptual framework11
Reference Model: Conceptual Framework

The Cognitive Domain: Perception of Ground Truth

Based on Interaction with Information Domain

and Direct Observation of Physical Domain

The Information Domain

“Digital Format”

“Paper Format”

The Physical Domain: “Ground Truth”

reference model conceptual framework12
Reference Model: Conceptual Framework

The Cognitive Domain:

Shared Awareness

The Information Domain

Shared Information

The Physical Domain: “Ground Truth”

reference model conceptual framework13
Reference Model: Conceptual Framework

Blue Cognitive Domain

Blue

Blue Information Domain

Relative

Information

Advantage

The Physical Domain:

Competitive Advantage - Combat Power

Red Information Domain

Red

Red Cognitive Domain

reference model conceptual framework14
Reference Model: Conceptual Framework

Blue Cognitive Domain

Defensive

Info Ops

Blue Information Domain

Relative

Information

Advantage

Offensive

Info Ops

The Physical Domain

Offensive

Info Ops

Red Information Domain

Red Cognitive Domain

reference model conceptual framework15
Reference Model: Conceptual Framework

Blue Cognitive Domain

Blue Information Domain

“The Situation”

Relative

Information

Advantage

The Physical Domain

Red Information Domain

Red Cognitive Domain

reference model the situation
Reference Model: The Situation
  • Awareness is a Perception of the Situation
  • Levels of Awareness
    • entities, relationships, the patterns and implications

Time & Space

E

n

v

i

r

o

n

m

e

n

t

  • Capabilities & Intentions

M

i

s

s

I

o

n

Red

Blue

The Situation

Other

Opportunities & Risks

reference model components of situational awareness

Decide

Reference Model:Components of Situational Awareness

Patterns

Risk

Capabilities

Blue Estimate

of Adversary

Intent

Personal

Subjective

Situational

Awareness

“Assessment”

Applied

Knowledge

Opportunities

Tactics,

Techniques,

Procedures

Cognitive

Domain

Training

State

Information

on Objects

Act

Information

Domain

Objects

Physical

Domain

reference model domain relationships
Reference Model: Domain Relationships

Cognitive

Domain

Shared Awareness

Information Sharing

Information

Domain

Direct

Sensing

Indirect

Sensing

Reality

Action

reference model collaboration
Reference Model: Collaboration

Collaboration

Information Sharing

reference model synchronization
Reference Model: Synchronization

Shared Awareness

The Plan

Synchronization

reference model self synchronization
Reference Model: Self-Synchronization

Shared Awareness

Intent

Information Sharing

Self-Synchronization

reference model self synchronization23
Reference Model: Self-Synchronization

Shared Awareness

Self-Synchronization

reference model detailed view of tactical level
Reference Model: Detailed View of Tactical Level

Awareness

Cognitive

Domain

Human 1

Cognitive Domain

Data 1

View 1

Voice 1

Digital

Info

Domain

Information

Domain

Com: Voice

Com: Data

Organic

Sensors

Physical Domain

reference model detailed view of tactical level25
Reference Model: Detailed View of Tactical Level

Shared Awareness

Human 1

Human 1

Human 1

Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain

Data 1

Data 1

Data 1

View 1

View 1

View 1

Voice 1

Voice 1

Voice 1

Shared

Information

Digital

Info

Domain

Digital

Info

Domain

Digital

Info

Domain

Com: Voice

Com: Voice

Com: Voice

Com: Data

Com: Data

Com: Data

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

Physical Domain

the information domain
The Information Domain

Information

“Richness”

  • Content
  • Accuracy
  • Timeliness
  • Relevance

Network-

Centric

Operations

.

Platform-Centric

Operations

.

.

Information

“Reach”

Richness and reach were introduced by Phillip B. Evans and Thomas S. Wurster, “Strategy and the New Economics of

Information,” Harvard Business Review, September-October 1997.

slide27

Richness and Reach

  • InformationRichness is an aggregate measure of the
    • Quality of Battlespace Information, and
    • Quality of the interactions among entities
  • InformationReach is an aggregate measure of the degree to which Information is shared

Richness and reach were introduced by Phillip B. Evans and Thomas S. Wurster, “Strategy and the New Economics of

Information,” Harvard Business Review, September-October 1997.

information domain attributes of information richness
Information Domain: Attributes of Information Richness

Richness of Interaction

(Voice / Data / Video)

Information

Completeness

Trust and Confidence

in Information

Information

Commonality

and Consistency

Information

Relevance

“Why”

Object State Information

- Identification

- Classification

- Location

Information

Timeliness

“What”

Information

Accuracy

“When”

“Who”

“Where”

example information richness attributes for a single integrated air picture siap
Example Information Richness Attributes for a Single Integrated Air Picture (SIAP)
  • Completeness. The percentage of real tracks that are included in the SIAP.
  • Correctness. Data accurately reflects true track attributes (position, kinematics, and identity).
  • Commonality. Track attributes of shared data are the same for each SIAP user.
  • Continuity. Proper maintenance of track attributes over time.
  • Timeliness. Data is where it is needed, when it is needed.

Source: Representative Measures of a Single Integrated Air Picture (SIAP)

information domain attributes of information reach
Information Domain: Attributes of Information Reach

Geographic

Range

of Sharing

Sharing by Availability

(24x7)

Access

(Search/Navigation)

Sharing By

Number of

Nodes

Sharing By

Allied / Coalition

Sharing By

Security Level

Sharing

By Component /

Echelon

Capability for

Multi-actor Interactions

overview31
Overview
  • Conceptual Framework and Definitions
  • Reference Model
  • Application of the Reference Model
  • Summary
slide32

Application of the Reference Model

  • Mission Area: Air-to-Air
  • Information needs are approximately symmetric
    • Both forces require relevant information to engage
    • Relevant information consists of object state information
      • Identification
      • Classification
      • Engage quality information (Precise Position Location)
    • Synchronization and coordination of tactical actions requires information sharing by voice or data link
air to air mission with tactical data links
Air-to-Air Mission with Tactical Data Links

* Link-16: Shared Battlespace

Awareness

Information

“Richness”

* E-3 AWACS

* F-15C

  • Content
  • Accuracy
  • Timeliness
  • Relevance

Network-

Centric

Operations

.

Platform-Centric

Operations

.

.

Information

“Reach”

mission area air to air the tactical situation
Mission Area: Air-to-AirThe Tactical Situation

Adversary

Aircraft

Blue Aircraft’s

Organic Sensor

X

X

X

X

X

Blue Aircraft

X

reference model air to air mission

Heads-up Display with Platform-Centric Operations

08

09

10

1500

400

5

5

1000

450

500

500

5

5

10

10

X FRIENDLY

TARGET

Reference Model: Air to Air Mission

Shared Awareness

Human 1

Human 1

Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain

Data 1

Data 1

View 1

View 1

Voice 1

Voice 1

Shared

Information

Digital

Info

Domain

Digital

Info

Domain

Com: Voice

Com: Voice

Warfighter “View”

which results

from sharing info

via voice only

communications

Com: Data

Com: Data

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

Physical Domain

reference model air to air mission36

X

X

X

X

X

X

Heads-up Display with Network-Centric Operations

08

09

10

1500

400

5

5

1000

450

500

500

5

5

10

10

X FRIENDLY

TARGET

Reference Model: Air-to-Air Mission

Shared Awareness

Human 1

Human 1

Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain

Data 1

Data 1

View 1

View 1

Voice 1

Voice 1

Shared

Information

Digital

Info

Domain

Digital

Info

Domain

Com: Voice

Com: Voice

Warfighter “View”

which results

from sharing info

via voice and data

communications

Com: Data

Com: Data

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

Physical Domain

application of richness attributes and associated metrics
Application of Richness Attributesand Associated Metrics
  • Relevant Information
    • Information on Blue, Red, and Neutrals within a specified distance “R”
    • Object State Information
      • Precise position location information
      • Identification
      • Typing
  • Completeness measured as percentage of objects “mapped” to information domain
slide38

R1

Measuring a Relative Information Advantage

Case Where Info Needs are Approximately Symmetric

100%

Blue Info Position

*

Blue

(xB, yB)

Y: Percentage of Own Force

Correctly Typed and Tracked

within Sphere of Radius R1

Y

Blue/Red

Info Needs

*

(xR, yR)

Red

Red Info Position

0

X

100%

X : Percentage of Adversary Force

Correctly Typed and Tracked

within Sphere of Radius R1

Info Advantage = f ((xB, yB), (xR, yR))

air to air mission with tactical data links39
Air-to-Air Mission with Tactical Data Links

F15-C Air Ops: Active Missile Counter Tactics

Without JTIDS/With JTIDS

  • Information Advantage Voice Only vs. Shared Tactical Picture
  • OODA Loop Baseline Compressed with Self-Synchronization
  • Kill Ratio 3.10:1 vs. 8.11:1 (2.6 x increase)

The Bottom Line: JTIDS Operational Special Project

demonstrated networked air crews

fighting with shared awareness

could increase combat power by

over 200 %

Source: JTIDS Operational Special Project - Report to Congress, Dec 97

translation of an information advantage to increased combat power
Translation of an Information Advantage To Increased Combat Power

Velocity

of Info

Data

Network

Awareness of Blue (Y)

Voice

Network

Awareness of Red (X)

*

3.10:1

8.11:1

*

Self Synch

Kill Ratio

OPTEMPO

2.6 x increase

slide41

Extracts from JTIDS Operational Special Project Report to Congress (Cont.)

  • Operational Effectiveness Kill Ratio
    • Active Missile Counter Tactics, Fall 1996
      • Non-JTIDS equipped aircraft vs. adversary 3.10.1
      • JTIDS equipped aircraft vs. adversary 8.11.1
    • Night Composite Force Tactics Development and Evaluation, Spring 1997
      • Non-JTIDS equipped aircraft vs. adversary 3.62:1
      • JTIDS equipped aircraft vs. adversary 9.40:1

2.61 x increase

2.59 x increase

extracts from jtids operational special project report to congress cont
Extracts from JTIDS Operational Special Project Report to Congress (Cont.)
  • Air Combat Command Project Order: 92-035TF
  • Operational Special Project Details
    • 19,400 flying hours
    • 12,500 sorties
    • Multiple Missions with F-15C
      • Basic 1-on-1 flight maneuvers
      • 8 vs. 16 defensive counter air and offensive counter air
    • Missions were flown as part of normal training sorties
    • Duration: 20 Sep 93 - 30 Apr 97
extracts from jtids operational special project report to congress
Extracts from JTIDS Operational Special Project Report to Congress

Section 4.3: Tactics Adaptation and Section 5.0: Conclusions

  • Situational Awareness drastically increased with data links due to continual positional awareness of friendlies and adversaries which reduced the need for radio communications. This greatly increased the accuracy of targeting threat aircraft.
  • Each flight member was able to see the disposition of flight members, regardless of their separation.
  • This shared awareness made split tactics easier, led to greater flight effectiveness and afforded quicker rejoins when desired.
  • The mutual support enhancements proved even more significant against a non-equipped adversary in night and weather conditions since the adversary formation either had to stay together or substantially degrade mutual support.
  • When voice was used, the pilots often referred to common picture making the voice more meaningful.
extracts from jtids operational special project report to congress cont44
Extracts from JTIDS Operational Special Project Report to Congress (Cont.)
  • In testing with the data link, a perfect sort was routine with four (and two) ship flights. This had strong positive implications concerning first pass kill results, fighting outnumbered, survivability and cost effectiveness in employing expensive aircraft/missiles. When an F-15 inadvertently locked on to another flight member, the error was graphically displayed (by the lock line going to the friendly fighter) and the pilot lost little time in determining the error and avoiding possible fratricide)
extracts from jtids operational special project report to congress cont45
Extracts from JTIDS Operational Special Project Report to Congress (Cont.)
  • OSP Message Formats
    • Precise Participant Location and Identification (PPLI) and status information, displayed to the F-15 pilots and AWACS operators, about the identification, position, fuel, weapons, etc. of all Link 16 equipped aircraft
    • Track/target reports which convey location and ID information about aircraft (and other platforms) and potential targets
    • Weapons coordination and target assignments
    • Sensor reports (including primary target and missile in flight) provided by shooters (e.g., fighters).
    • Limited intelligence derived information
overview46
Overview
  • Conceptual Framework and Definitions
  • Reference Model
  • Application of the Reference Model
  • Summary
summar y
Summary
  • The IS/NCW Conceptual Framework and Reference Model developed and refined as a result of IS Workshop II provide a methodology for:
    • More precisely defining attributes and metrics for the information domain
    • Describing relationships between the physical, information, and cognitive domains
    • Measuring an information advantage
  • The utility of this methodology for providing insight into the relationship between an information advantage and combat power was demonstrated in the successful application of these tools to the Air-to-Air Mission.
siap cont
SIAP Cont.

(3) The mean range at which initial detection (by sensor type: Search radar, Fire control radar, ESM, IFF, Visual, etc) was made compared to the predicted range (considering RCS, environmentals, radar Horizon, etc). (This is a chart)

 [range at which detection of the vehicle/formation was made (by sensor) in a given environment

divided by the predicted sensor detection range of the vehicle/formation (in a given environment)]

divided by

# of vehicles/formations

Note: Multiple objects that are part of a formation not discriminated by the force sensors will be counted as only one ground truth vehicle (until the formation breaks)

siap cont50
SIAP Cont.

c. Attribute: Correctness

(1) Percentage of time tracking false tracks (for each individual unit and for all links)

 the duration of all false tracks

 the duration of all tracks

(2) Mean track positional accuracy/errors of sensors

 of the difference between sensor positional and kinematics data of air and space vehicles and the 3D positional and kinematics truth data for air and space vehicles

divided by # of track updates

(3) For false tracks, mean time from Track Start to Drop Track tracks (for each individual unit and for all links)

 [Time (Drop track) minus Time (Track Start)]

Number of false tracks

shared awareness

Cognitive Domain

Information Domain

Information Domain

Information Domain

Information Domain

Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain

Human 1

Human 2

Human 4

Human 3

View 4

View 3

View 2

View 1

Shared Awareness

Situation

“Physical Domain”

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

  • Intel
  • Intent

Voice

Voice

Voice

Shared Awareness

shared awareness52

Cognitive Domain

Information Domain

Information Domain

Information Domain

Information Domain

Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain

Human 2

Human 3

Human 1

Human 4

View 1

View 2

View 3

View 4

Shared Awareness

Situation

“Physical Domain”

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

Organic

Sensors

  • Intel
  • Intent

Shared Awareness

siap cont53
SIAP Cont.

Critical Operational Issue (COI) #2:

Evaluate the Naval Force’s capability (operating independently or as part of a Joint/Combined Force) to detect and maintain a single and continuous trackon each air and space vehicle within the assigned battlespace.

A. Measure of Effectiveness (MOE ) #1:

Determine the capability of the Naval Force to detect and create a firm track for each air and space vehicle within the assigned battlespace.

1. Measures of Performance (MOP) Follow:

siap cont54
SIAP Cont.

a. Attribute: Completeness:

(1) % of air and space vehicles detected in the assigned battlespace

Number of Air & Space Vehicles detected

Number of Ground Truth Air & Space Vehicles

(2) Mean % of time an air or space vehicle was detected and tracked in the assigned battlespace

 Time air or space vehicle/formation was detected and tracked

divided by

 Time air or space vehicle/formation was in the assigned Battlespace

siap cont55
SIAP Cont.

b. Attribute: Timeliness

(1) Mean time from air or space vehicle entry into the assigned battlespace to initial detection by each unit

Max [(Time initial detection was made minus time air or space vehicle/formations entered the assigned battlespace),0] divided by

Total number of vehicles/formations

(2) Mean time to firm track

[ [Time (Track transitioned to firm track)]

minus

[Time (Initial Detection was made)]

Total number of vehicles]

candidate definition56
Candidate Definition
  • Operational Information Superiority
    • The ability to establish and maintain a relative information advantage for a specified period of time at the operational level of war
    • Example: Operation Overlord: Allied Invasion of Normandy in June of 1944.
example progressive degradation
Example: Progressive Degradation

* Data Link

Information

“Richness”

* Voice

Information

“Reach”