The Pledge of Allegiance. By: Renee Wright 2010. OATH OF LOYALTY TO U.S.A. ORIGINALLY COMPOSED BY FRANCIS BELLAMY IN 1892 FIRST USED IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS ON OCT. 12, 1892 DURING COLUMBUS DAY CELEBRATION MODIFIED FOUR TIMES MOST RECENT CHANGE IN 1954 ADDED “UNDER GOD” TO THE PLEDGE
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By: Renee Wright
Ruled that the students in public schools must say the
pledge, even Jehovah’s Witnesses like the defendants in
this case. (This brought about a rash of violence against
Reversed decision and ruled that saying the pledge violated the First
Amendment and public schools can not require students
to say the pledge.
Newdowv. Elk Grove
Unified School District
March 2000 Lawsuit Filed in Trial Court by Michael Newdow against Elk Grove Unified School District
U.S. Magistrate Judge Peter A. Nowinsk ruled saying the pledge constitutional. Dismissed in 2000 and Mr. Newdow appealed.
Ruled 2-1 “under God” endorses religion and violates the first Amendment.
*43 States have laws regarding requirements for student recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance in schools. (Unless parents or guardians object in writing.)
*7 States have no laws regarding requirements for the recitation of the Pledge.
(Iowa, Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, Nebraska, Vermont & Wyoming)
*School board or charter school board of directors may waive the requirement annually by majority vote.
Does it advance or inhibit religion?
Does it create excessive entanglement?
Does the pledge have a secular purpose?
After the events of September 11, 2001, the U.S. has become united around patriotism. “In God We Trust” is found on U.S. coins and has been held to be a national slogan and not an endorsement of religion.