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Purpose of military institutions

Purpose of military institutions

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Purpose of military institutions

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  1. Purpose of military institutions • Application of force in pursuit of state policy

  2. Types of military service • Full-time permanent • Regular army • Part-time permanent • Militia, national guard, reserves • Full-time temporary • Conscription, volunteers • Militia, national guard, reserves called up for full-time service

  3. Functions of military organizations • Fight wars • “Minor” external applications of force • raids, “interventions,” etc. • Guard frontiers (sea lanes) • Suppress domestic strife • Emergency response • Occupy territory

  4. Largest occupation duty by U.S. forces prior to Twentieth Century? • The South during Reconstruction

  5. U.S. Army in May 1865 • Over 1,000,000 men • Vast majority volunteers

  6. Post-Civil War army size • Volunteers • Only 11,000 in November 1866. • Almost all discharged by November 1867. • Regular Army • Size authorized at 54,000 in July 1866. • Reductions in 1869 & 1876, latter established army at 27,000.

  7. Efforts at Reconstruction prior to the war’s end • Military governors for occupied states. • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedman’s Bureau), established in March 1865. • Staffed primarily by Army officers • Large peace-time expansion of federal power

  8. 1865-68: The Fight over Reconstruction • President Andrew Johnson takes a lenient view towards Reconstruction. • Regards it as a Presidential prerogative.

  9. The Congress reacts • Republicans upset about Johnson’s policies and Southern actions. • Conflicts between the Republican-controlled Congress and Johnson escalate. • In 1867, Congress passes bills over Presidential veto to wrench control over Reconstruction away from the President.

  10. The Reconstruction Acts:Military Provisions • 10 unreconstructed Southern states divided into 5 military districts. • Each district commanded by a general with US Army units at his disposal. • State governments subordinated to district commander. • District commanders responsible for registering voters, appointing/removing officials, overseeing elections and court proceedings. • Commanders not responsible to U.S. civil officers.

  11. Other 1867 acts passed over Johnson’s veto • Command of the Army Act • Tenure of Office Act

  12. Congressional Reconstruction: Army oversees readmission of states to the Union • 1868: AL, AR, FL, LA, NC, SC all adopt new state constitutions, install Republican governments, ratify 14th Amendment. • 17,000 - 20,000 army troops help keep order during voting process. • 1870: GA, MS, TX, VA admitted in 1870, will also ratify 15th Amendment.

  13. Reconstruction sparks violence • Paramilitary groups form in late 1860’s throughout South to terrorize African- Americans, white Republicans, and other groups assisting freedman • Most infamous: Ku Klux Klan

  14. Initial Response Poor • Violence widespread, beyond capacity individual, unpopular Republican state governments. • Army troop levels reduced further after 1868, to 8,000 by 1871. • After state readmitted to Union, the Army could only act upon request (and at behest) of state civilian officials.

  15. 1870-71 • Congress passes the Enforcement Acts: • Outlaws Klan and similar groups • Allowed President to impose martial law, suspend writ of habeas corpus. • President Grant moved federal cavalry from the plain (and undercover agents) to enforce these acts. • 1872 elections fairly honest.

  16. Commitment to Reconstruction in the North wanes • Northerners weary of sectional strife • Focus on other issues: • Corruption • Development of the West • Economic depression of 1873-76

  17. Southern Conservatives gain power in more states • After 1872, Grant administration weakly pursues efforts to combat political violence. • Southern conservatives become more discriminating in uses of coercion. • By 1876, Reconstruction governments remain only in FL, GA & SC – all with significant concentrations of federal troops.

  18. Compromise of 1877 • Results of 1876 presidential election contested. • Resolution: Democrats recognize Rutherford Hayes as victor. • The price: end of Reconstruction.