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A fungus is not a plant. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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A fungus is not a plant. Multicellular fungi consist of mycelium, which are made up of strands called hyphae. Hyphae have enormous surface areas. Absorbs food from environment. Prone to drying out. Most of “body” of fungus is feeding structure.

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Multicellular fungi consist of mycelium,

which are made up of strands called hyphae.

Hyphae have enormous surface areas.

Absorbs food from environment.

Prone to drying out.

slide4

Most of “body” of fungus is feeding structure.

Only reproductive body typically exposed to air.

Thick, fleshy structure of “shroom” prevents drying out.

slide6

Ascomycetes have

spores in sacs.

Basidiomycetes have

spores on clubs.

slide7

In fungi, cytoplasm of two individuals fuses, but

their nuclei may remain separate for a long time.

slide8

Fungal phylogeny is a work in progress!

No point in learning this now, will change.

slide9

Importance of Fungi:

1. Decomposers

2. Mycorrhizae

3. Lichens

4. Economic Impacts

slide10

Fungi as decomposers

Basidiomycete fungi are the only organisms

that can completely digest the lignin in wood.

Fungi serve an essential role in the carbon cycle.

slide11

Adaptations helping with decomposition:

Extracellular digestion

Only small molecules can cross plasma membranes.

Secreted enzymes break down large molecules.

slide12

Adaptations helping with decomposition:

Lignin peroxidase

Enzyme catalyzes removal

of a single electron; creating a

highly reactive atom.

“Enzymatic combustion”

Uncontrolled oxidation reaction

breaks up polymer.

(Most enzymatic reactions very

specific, but lignin itself highly

random).

Randomness of reaction means

that E from oxidation can’t be

harnessed.

slide13

Adaptations helping with decomposition:

Cellulose digestion

By cutting up lignin, fungi

gain access to cellulose.

The cellulase enzymes

digest cellulose into

glucose, which can be

used for food.

slide14

Importance of Fungi:

1. Decomposers

2. Mycorrhizae

3. Lichens

4. Economic Impacts

slide15

Fungi as partners with plants: Mycorrhizae

Importance of mycorrhizae discovered in ‘70’s.

Failure of pine plantations key observation.

slide16

Fungi as partners with plants: Mycorrhizae

EM fungi on most trees in temperate & boreal forests.

Hyphae penetrate dead leaves, twigs.

Release enzymes that cleave peptide bonds.

Provide N to plant in exchange for C.

slide17

Fungi as partners with plants: Mycorrhizae

AMF important in tropics and grasslands, on 80% of plants.

Ancient; fossil from 400 mya.

Provide phosphorus to plant in exchange for C.

slide19

Importance of Fungi:

1. Decomposers

2. Mycorrhizae

3. Lichens

4. Economic Impacts

slide21

Lichens are composed of fungal

hyphae and a layer of autotrophic

green algae or cyanobacteria

Colonize bare rock following

glaciation.

First stage in soil building.

slide22

Importance of Fungi:

1. Decomposers

2. Mycorrhizae

3. Lichens

4. Economic Impacts

slide23

Of course, the most important economic

impacts are those already mentioned.

slide25

A fungus called ergot is associated with

accusations of witchcraft.

Ergot poisoning causes convulsions, shaking, or spasms

and sometimes hallucinations or gangrene.

Ergot is the original source from which LSD first isolated.

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/LECT12.HTM

slide26

Fungi are thought to contribute to the worldwide

decline of amphibian populations.

slide27

A fungus has caused the

virtual extinction of

the American chestnut.

Note the man, to show

scale.

slide28

The first antibiotic was derived from Penicillium.

This is also the genus used to make blue cheeses.

Penicillium roquefortii is used in the manufacture of blue cheeses e.g. Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Stilton, etc.

During the fermentation process the fungus spores are injected into the curd.

By the way, the blue in the blue-cheese is caused by the pigment in the spores of the fungus.

So, when you eat blue cheese you are consuming spores by the million.

http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Mushroom/English/Lives/index.html

slide29

Yeast is the

workhorse

of eukaryote

genetics.

Yeasts are also essential

to the production

of wine, beer and bread.