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What is a plant???. Organism that is: Multicellular Eukaryote Autotrophic Has Cell wall Photosynthesizes. Plants evolved from Green Algae. Brainstorm with a neighbor: What are differences between algae and plants?. Challenges from life in water to life on land.

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what is a plant
What is a plant???
  • Organism that is:
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryote
  • Autotrophic
  • Has Cell wall
  • Photosynthesizes
plants evolved from green algae

Plants evolved from Green Algae

Brainstorm with a neighbor:

What are differences between algae and plants?

challenges from life in water to life on land
Challenges from life in water to life on land
  • Obtain resources from BOTH air and soil
  • Roots: below ground and absorb nutrients and water
  • Shoots: above ground and convert sunlight and CO2 to energy
  • Vascular system: moves water and nutrients between roots and shoots.
slide4

SHOOTS

ROOTS

challenges from life in water to life on land1
Challenges from life in water to life on land
  • Remaining upright and not falling over
  • Lignin: chemical that hardens the cell wall to give strength and support to plants.
challenges from life in water to life on land2
Challenges from life in water to life on land
  • Maintaining Moisture
  • Cuticle: Lipid, waxy covering that prevents water evaporation
  • Stomata: Pores on underside of leaf that regulates water and gas exchange
    • Guard cells: open and close the stomata
slide7

Hole = stomata

Cells around hole = guard cells

challenges from life in water to life on land3
Challenges from life in water to life on land
  • Reproduction on land
  • Need ways to prevent seeds from drying and ways to disperse
bryophytes
BRYOPHYTES
  • Moss
  • Lack lignin and are considered non vascular plants
  • Require water to reproduce because gametes have flagella
pteridophytes
Pteridophytes
  • First group of plants to have vascular tissue (lignin)
    • Able to grow taller now
  • Ferns, horse tails
  • Reproduce through spores on underside of leaf and no longer dependent on water
gymnosperms
Gymnosperms
  • First seed bearing plants
    • Naked seeds because they are not surrounded by fruit.
  • Conifers and needle leaf trees
slide12

Pollen cone

    • Male reproductive structure
  • Pollen grains
    • Male gamete, adapted to dry environment and transport through wind.
  • Pine cone
    • Female reproductive structure
  • Seeds
    • Plant embryo packaged with food supply inside a protective coat.
angiosperm
ANGIOSPERM
  • Flowering plants
  • Fruit: Ripened ovary used to protect seeds and disperse them.
parts of a flower
Parts of a Flower
  • Petals
    • Brightly colored to attract pollinators
  • Stamen
    • Male reproductive structure
    • Anther: holds pollen
      • Male gamete
    • Filament: holds up anther.
parts of a flower1
Parts of a Flower
  • Carpel
    • Female reproductive structure
    • stigma: sticky to catch pollen
    • Style: long tube that connects stigma and ovary
    • Ovary: holds ovules (eggs)
how do plants reproduce
How do Plants Reproduce?
  • Pollination
    • Rely on animals to transport pollen from male to female reproductive structure.
    • Brightly colored petals attract pollinators
  • Double Fertilization:
    • When pollen travels down style it splits into 2 sperm cells
      • 1 fertilizes the ovule to create seed
      • Other creates food supply
seed dispersion
Seed Dispersion
  • Once pollination has occurred seeds need to spread to allow for new plant growth
    • Burrs can stick to animals and move
    • Fruit can be eaten and then the core thrown
    • Some seeds need to be completely digested in order to grow.
    • Water currents and wind.
slide18

Annuals:

    • Go through a complete life cycle in one year.

basil

Baby blue eyes

Merigolds

tomato

biennials
biennials
  • Takes two years to complete the life cycle.

English daisy

perennials
Perennials
  • Take several years to complete their life cycle.

agave

Cat tails

Baby’s breath

roots
Roots
  • Found underground
    • Anchor plant
    • Hold soil in place
    • Absorb water and nutrients.
types of roots
Types of Roots
  • Fibrous Roots
    • SEVERAL THIN BRANCHING ROOTS
types of roots1
Types of Roots
  • Fibrous
  • Tap roots
    • Long root to anchor plant
    • Several small horizontal root hairs.
shoots
SHOOTS
  • STEM
    • LOCATION OF LIGNIN
    • XYLEM AND PHLOEM TO MOVE WATER AND NUTRIENTS THROUGH PLANT.
slide25

Leaf

    • Location of photosynthesis
    • 2 parts
      • Petiole
      • Blade
types of tissue in plants
Types of Tissue in Plants
  • Dermal Tissue
    • Acts as a protective barrier for the plant.
    • Secretes the cuticle.
    • Outer most layer of tissue.
vascular tissue
Vascular Tissue
  • Contains lignin to give support.
  • XYLEM: transport water and nutrients from roots to shoots
    • Transpiration is the evaporation of water through leaves that drives the process
vascular tissue1
Vascular Tissue
  • .
  • PHLOEM: transports sugars due to diffusion (high concentration to low concentration).
ground tissue
Ground tissue
  • Tissue found between dermal and vascular tissue.
  • Most abundant tissue type
  • Location of photosynthesis
primary growth
Primary growth
  • Growth upwards and downwards in height.
  • Occurs at root caps and buds in plants.
secondary growth
Secondary growth
  • Growth in width outwards.
  • Adds new xylem and phloem.
  • Every 2 rings = 1 year of growth for tree rings.