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The Five Empires

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  1. The Five Empires Egypt, Nubia, Assyria, Persia, China

  2. Following the old kingdom Egypt weakened • Conquered by the Hyksos • Surprised Egypt because they felt relatively safe with the deserts on both sides. • Ruled Egypt for almost 100 years. • Welcomed the Israelites to Egypt • The Egyptians Hated both groups • Egyptians kick the Hyksos out around 1600 bc • Enslave the Israelites till the Exodus sometime between 1500 BC and 1200 BC Egypt – The New Kingdom

  3. Kamose • Led the Victory over the Hyksos • Hatshepsut • Declared herself pharaoh around 1473 BC • Step son too young • Ruled with Trade not with war • Helped Egypt get wealthy • Thutmose III • Killed his step mom and took the thrown (rumor) • Expanded the empire through war • Ramses II • Made peace with the Hittites • Built the massive temples and tombs in the Valley of the Kings The Pharaohs

  4. After Ramses II Died the kingdom weakened and Egypt began to be invaded • Attacked and invaded by the “Sea People” • Eventually Egypt would be conquered by many of the later empires. • Including Nubia. Egypt Decline

  5. Egypt ruled over the people of Nubia for many years, but Nubian was rising as Egypt was Falling • Benefitted from its location on the Nile, connecting the heart of Africa with the Mediterranean • Kush became a major trade city. • People in Nubia were forced to learn Egyptian Culture • Spoke same language, worshiped same Gods • When Egypt fell into the hands of the Libyans the Nubians felt they would be better at preserving Egyptian Culture than the Libyans Nubia

  6. In 751 BC a Kushite king overthrew the Libyan Dynasty that had ruled Egypt for over 200 years. • United the area north to south • Started Egypt's 25th Dynasty • Until they were pushed back to Nubia by the Assyrians • Despite the loss the Nubians would reach their peak • Moved to Meroe which was better located for trade • Better natural resources • Iron ore and precious metals • Huge success trading on the red sea • Decline • Defeated by Aksum Piankhi and the Golden Age

  7. Came from Mesopotamia • Open land prone for invasion, had to learn to fight. • Fighting led them to become one of the most dominate empires • King Sennacherib bragged about his destruction • Well Trained and Well Equipped • Armor was best for the time • Iron Weapons and Shields • Advanced Strategy and Skill • Used Pontoons, and Battering Rams • Left Destruction where ever they concurred Assyria- the Warriors

  8. Largest empires around 650 • Used local governors to report to the king • Made conquered lands pay tribute • If they refused they were destroyed • Kings became builders of great cities • Sennacherib built Nineveh • One of the largest cities of the time • Ashurbanipal • Built one of the ancient worlds largest libraries in Nineveh • Cataloged and organized much like a modern library. Government of Assyria

  9. Power was spread too thin and the empire had too many enemies • Conquered by a joint army of Medes and Chaldeans • Made Babylon the Capitol • King Nebuchadnezzar • Restored Babylon • Built the Hanging Gardens for his wife • Chaldean Empire collapsed shortly after his death Collapse and Chaldeans

  10. Located in Eastern Fertile Crescent • Between he Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea • Area of a number of Tiny kingdoms that rose to form two major empires • The Medes and the Persians • The Persians would eventually rise and create a powerful empire Persia

  11. Began Conquering neighboring kingdoms • Military genius that expanded the Persian empire to cover over 2,000 miles • More importantly Cyrus was a different Conqueror • Kind, and compassionate • Would pray at the temple of every city he conquered. • Never burned or destroyed a city • Allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem • Killed in battle by nomadic herders in the east of the empire. Cyrus the Great

  12. Combination of Self Government with major government • Darius, a successor to Cyrus established provinces in the empire • People in each province lived under normal customs and laws • Placed a governor in each province who would help him rule locally • Established tax collectors and military leaders in each province • Had spies “ the King’s Eyes and Ears” in the province to keep control Persian Government

  13. Ran from Susa to Sardia 1,677 miles • Helped keep the empire connected • Trade traveled along the road which was monitored by the king • Also used standard currency throughout the kingdom for trade The Royal Road

  14. Raised in time of conflict • Believed life was a conflict between good and evil • Monotheistic Religion • Ahura Mazda • Shared beliefs with Judaism, Christianity, and Islam • Satan and angels. • Declined but still exists in Iran and India • Followers are called Parsis Zoroaster

  15. As the Zhou dynasty declined in China so did the ancient values systems that impacted the culture and government • Replaced with a number of ethical systems and their viewpoints • Confucianism • Daoism • Legalism • Iching • Yin and Yang China’s Ethical Systems

  16. Not a Religion…. Its an Ethical System • Born in 551 BC • Scholar who studied history and music and moral character • Wanted to restore order • Based on 5 Relationships • Ruler and Subject • Father and Son • Husband and Wife • Older Brother and younger Brother • And Friend to Friend. • Each relationship had a code of conduct to follow to regulate order • Rules practice kindness and virtue in return the subjects should be loyal and law abiding • Filial Piety • Respect to parents • Appointed minister of Justice • Crime disappeared until he resigned. • Education is the key to good government • Teach people how to be good leaders Confucius

  17. Laozi • Believed in the Natural order • Relationship between ALL things • The universal force called the Dao “the Way” guides all things • Only humans fail to follow the Dao • They argue right and wrong and good and bad manners • Arguments are pointless • Daoists studied science and astronomy and Medicine Daoism philosophy Not a Religion…. Its an Ethical System

  18. Yin and yang • Balance in all things • Rhythm of the Universe needs to be balance or unrest will take place • I Ching • Book of oracles to solve problems • Throw coins to answer problems, interpret the throw, and read the corresponding oracle or prediction • Offers good advice and common sense Yin and yang and Iching Not a Religion…. Its an Ethical System

  19. Highly efficient and powerful government was the key to order in society • Government should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmony • Hanfeize and Li Si philosophers of Legalism • Ruler should reward the good and punish the bad • Traveling without a permit= nose cut off • Would find favor with the rising dynasty and have a large influence on China Legalism Not a Religion…. Its an Ethical System

  20. First ruler assumed the name Shi Huangdi (first emperor) • Stopped internal wars and focused on Uniting China • Worked on preventing invasion • Built the Great Wall to surround the empire • Expanded and Unified the empire • Crushed opposition in government • Uprooted the nobles and moved them close to him to watch and control them • Was a legalist • Murdered the Confucius scholars • Burned the books that didn’t match his view point • Autocratic government – unlimited power used arbitrarily Qin Dynasty

  21. United China • Built roads to connect over 4,000 miles of territory • Used standard laws, writing, and currency • Standard in all things, including length of cart axels • Increased production of goods and trade • Taxed heavily, making him unpopular • Built the Great Wall • Surrounded most of the empire and protected them • Peasants had to work on the wall, work or die, making them hate the emperor and most of them died anyway. Shi Huangdi

  22. Shi Huangdi’s son was cruel like his dad, but was not a good leader • Peasants rebelled 3 years into his reign • One of their leaders, from Han, marched his men to the capital city and the Qin dynasty was replaced by the Han Dynasty • Hans will be one of the longest ruling dynasties in Chinese history Fall of Qin