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Making the Virtualization Decision. Agenda. The Virtualization Umbrella Server Virtualization Architectures The Players Getting Started. What is Virtualization?. The act of abstracting the physical boundaries of a technology. The Virtualization Umbrella. Server Virtualization.

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  • The Virtualization Umbrella
  • Server Virtualization Architectures
  • The Players
  • Getting Started
what is virtualization
What is Virtualization?

The act of abstracting the physical boundaries of a technology.

the virtualization umbrella
The Virtualization Umbrella

Server Virtualization

Network Virtualization


Storage Virtualization

network virtualization
Network Virtualization
  • Emerging Technology
  • Cisco (Network-Based)
    • The efficient utilization of network resources through logical segmentation of a single physical network.
    • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)
    • Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF)
    • Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) VPNs
    • Single Physical Network -- multiple closed logical groups
network virtualization1
Network Virtualization
  • Sun Crossbow (Host-Based)
    • Physical NIC divided into multiple virtual NICs
    • Bandwidth resource control and virtualization included in the network stack
    • Bandwidth and priority dynamically assigned to services (FTP, SMB, etc) or Virtual Machines
storage virtualization
Storage Virtualization
  • Host-Based
    • RAID
  • Network-Based
    • In-band
      • Virtualization appliance resides directly in the data path
      • Commonly associated with SANs
        • Cisco, IBM, EMC, Pillar
    • Out-of-band
      • Virtualization appliance resides outside of the data path
        • DFS, Global Namespace
in band virtualization
In-band Virtualization
  • Physical storage resources translated into virtual resources
  • Replication
  • Data Management
  • Combined with server virtualization

Virtualization Appliance

distributed file systems
Distributed File Systems
  • Abstract the physical storage location from the data path


DFS RootPublic






  • Applications run within virtual servers that reside on one or more physical host systems.
  • Common Implementations:
    • Failover Clusters
    • Load Balanced Clusters
    • Shared Data Clusters
failover clustering

Virtual Server

Failover Clustering

Shared Storage

Physical Node

Physical Node


(to public LAN)

server virtualization
Server Virtualization
  • Host systems, such as servers are virtualized
  • Servers run as virtual machines
virtual machines
Virtual Machines
  • VM = Independent OS running on top of another OS
  • Host = System running the Virtualization software
  • Run several logical servers on one physical system
    • Decommission older, slower systems
    • Supports server consolidation
  • Managed exactly the same as physical systems
  • Emulates all system hardware
    • AMD and Intel are changing this
why virtualize
Why Virtualize?
  • Consolidate Physical Resources
    • Logical resources may remain the same!
  • Reduce Power Consumption
  • Streamline System Recovery
  • Optimize Resource Utilization
  • Testing and Development
  • Training
server virtualization architectures
Server Virtualization Architectures
  • Host-Based Server Virtualization
    • Commonly known as “Server Virtualization”
    • VMware, Microsoft, Xen
  • OS Virtualization
    • Swsoft Virtuozzo, Solaris Containers
host based server virtualization
Host-Based Server Virtualization
  • Virtual Machine Monitor
    • Coordinates physical hardware access betweenVMs
  • Host OS/Hypervisor
    • Communicates with VMM
    • Runs server virtualization


vm components
VM Components
  • Virtual Hardware
    • Includes RAM, CPU, motherboard and network cards
  • Virtual Storage
    • Mapped to physical resource or exist as virtual disk file
      • .vmx = configuration
      • .vmdk = virtual hard disk
host based architectures
Host-Based Architectures
  • Full Virtualization
    • Everything emulated
    • Fully portable VMs
    • Large hit on network, disk I/O, added CPU overhead
  • Paravirtualization
    • OS kernel modified to make it hypervisor-aware
    • Solves problem of CPU overhead
  • Hardware-assisted Virtualization
    • Fueled by AMD and Intel
    • System hardware is aware of virtualization hypervisor
os virtualization
OS Virtualization
  • Isolation provided at the process level
    • OS caps placed on individual processesand system resources
  • Each instance is a “Virtual Environment”

(AKA Virtual Private Server or Container)

  • No added OS overhead (Memory, Disk per VM)
  • No emulation = No I/O overhead
  • Excellent track record in web serving
  • Limited OS support, all VEs on 1 box must use the same OS
the players server virtualization
The Players -- Server Virtualization
  • VMware
    • ESX Server, Virtual Infrastructure 3
    • VMware Server
  • Microsoft
    • Windows Server Virtualization Service (coming in Windows Server 2008)
    • Virtual Server 2005
  • Xen
    • XenSource, Virtual Iron, Novell, Red Hat
the players os virtualization
The Players – OS Virtualization
  • SWsoft
    • Virtuozzo
    • Linux, Windows
  • Sun
    • Solaris Containers
  • HP
    • Virtual Server Environment (VSE)
  • IBM
    • Virtual Partition Manager
  • Power and Hardware Savings
  • Logical Resource Consolidation
    • Fewer physical boxes, same or more logical resources
    • Potential for more single points of failure
  • Server Portability
    • Host hardware may not matter
    • Limitations on pass-through device

access needed to ensure portability

  • Application Failover
    • Apps that do not natively support

clustering can failover as part of a VM

  • Server Selection
  • Management
  • Performance
  • Network & Storage Integration
  • Backup Complexity
eliminating servers
Eliminating Servers
  • “I want to consolidate 15 to 1!”
  • “Let’s put the servers that start with A-G on this box, H-S on this box…”
  • Centralized management, monitoring
  • VM sprawl
  • Centralized hypervisor management
    • Still an OS… still needs updates!
  • IHVs is developing tools to centrally manage multiple different server virtualized Apps.
  • Vastly improved with Hardware-assisted or paravirtualization
  • Consolidation introduces potential for more bottlenecks
    • Host disk
    • Host network
  • Vendors improving this
    • Improvements from Intel and AMD
    • Paravirtualized or synthetic device drivers
network and storage integration
Network and Storage Integration
  • Existing devices may not be supported
    • Varies by vendor
    • Some products don’t have ability to add third party drivers
  • Disk bottlenecks easy possibility
  • Virtual switch management
    • 802.1Q support?
    • Who owns it?
backup complexity
Backup Complexity
  • Host backup required for VM configuration files
  • VM Backup
    • Agent based is still the safest
    • Centralized backup on the rise
      • VMware VCB
      • Microsoft Shadow Copies
      • Limitations on both OS/application
  • May not be enough host I/O (disk, network) to support previous backup window
to virtualize or not to virtualize
To Virtualize or Not To Virtualize
  • Many choices for many problems
    • Storage
    • Network
    • Server
    • Host
virtualizing storage
Virtualizing Storage
  • More efficient utilization of storage resources
  • Simplifies administration
  • Provides additional methods for data protection
  • Better Server virtualization flexibility
  • Considerations:
    • Integration with existing hardware platforms and operating systems
    • Integration with existing data protection/backup products
virtualizing servers
Virtualizing Servers
  • Average server 10-15% CPU utilization
  • Consolidating to VMs on few servers = Better efficiency & less space
  • Client workstation provisioning
    • VMware ACE
    • Secure VPN-connected workstations
  • Over Plan
  • Ensure Infrastructure Compatibility
    • Storage/SAN
    • Network
    • OS/application
    • Backup
  • Start Slow
  • For mission critical applications, VM failover support is key

Andrew Kutz