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Cyberbullying: Prevalence,Types, Effects on Targets, & Sources of Preferred Support. Christine Suniti Bhat, Ph.D. Assistant Professor (bhatc@ohio.edu) Counselor Education, Ohio University. Cyberbullying on YouTube. Film Title: cyber bullying Created by “jmuise” URL:

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cyberbullying prevalence types effects on targets sources of preferred support

Cyberbullying: Prevalence,Types, Effects on Targets, & Sources of Preferred Support

Christine Suniti Bhat, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor (bhatc@ohio.edu)

Counselor Education, Ohio University

cyberbullying on youtube
Cyberbullying on YouTube
  • Film Title: cyber bullying
  • Created by “jmuise”
  • URL:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxKYU3SIDhI

Length: 01:35

    • Added: October 2006
    • Views: 54,067
    • Comments: 455

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

recent comments in response to a film of cyberbullying on youtube
Recent Comments in Response to a Film of Cyberbullying on YOUTUBE
  • MrBlonde132

LOL ur so fucking dumb who gives a shit what anonymous person halfway across the world who never met you thinks?

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

recent comments in response to a film of cyberbullying on you tube
Recent Comments in Response to a Film of Cyberbullying on YOU TUBE
  • haqh0re

hahah cyber bullying, you gotta be fucking kidding me. anyone that kills themselves because of what someone says over the internet is seriously laughable. if you care that much at what someone says, you are insecure, weak, pathetic and deranged, someone that needs to get out of the gene pool.

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

recent comments in response to a film of cyberbullying on you tube1
Recent Comments in Response to a Film of Cyberbullying on YOU TUBE
  • CubsFan2812

EVERY SINGLE DAY IM CYBER BULLIED

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

recent comments in response to a film on cyberbullying on you tube
Recent Comments in Response to a Film on Cyberbullying on YOU TUBE
  • xLittlexLadyx (1 month ago)

i dont understand how somebody could sit at a computer screen straight on and type something like 'your such a slut' or 'no body likes you' because even though it takes a few seconds to type, it takes a lifetime to get over…

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

what is cyberbullying
Cyberbullying (CB) is the use of cyber-communication tools to intimidate, harass, victimize, or bully an individual or a group of individuals

(Bhat, C. S., 2007)

What is Cyberbullying?

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

definition of cyberbullying
Definition of Cyberbullying
  • Use of information technology to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group that is intended to harm others (Belsey, n.d.)
  • Cyberbullying (CB) may include sending or posting harmful material using digital technology to inflict social cruelty on victims.

(Willard, 2006)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

why cyberbully unique cb factors
Why Cyberbully?Unique CB Factors
  • The intent of CB actions is to threaten, harm, humiliate, and engender fear and helplessness in the victim.

(Strom, 2005)

  • Cyberbullying is harder to detect than bullying
    • Cyberbullies may disguise identity
    • Cyberbullies are often “silent” and thus go undetected
    • Incorporate many others into harmful activities
    • Often include various forms of sexual harassment

(Shariff, 2005)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

what we know about bullying
What We Know About Bullying
  • Bullying takes place on school premises or while traveling to or from school
    • Victim is harmed by the physical, verbal, or social/emotional tactics employed by the bully
    • Power imbalance or unfair match

between bully and victim

    • Harmful actions are repeated

over time

(Hazler, 1996)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

how is cyberbullying different from bullying
How is Cyberbullying Different from Bullying?
  • CB usually takes place outside school premises

BUT

  • The effects of CB are experienced in school
  • CB may lead to bullying or ridicule in school

Bhat, C. S. (2007)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

how is cyberbullying different from bullying1
How is Cyberbullying Different from Bullying?
  • Victim is harmed as a result of CB
  • Unfair match – cyberbully may
    • be more technologically skilled than victim
    • remain anonymous
    • have power to embarrass or

exclude victim

  • Actions may be repeated over time
  • BUT CB can spread exponentially

from one instance

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

Bhat, C. S. (2007)

key players in bullying and cyberbullying
Key “Players” in Bullying and Cyberbullying
  • Bullying
    • Victim/s
    • Bully/ies
    • Bystanders
  • Cyberbullying
    • Victim/s or Target/s(experience negative effects: harm, hurt, humiliation)
    • Active CB-Bully/ies (initiate CB actions)
    • Passive CB-Bully/ies (do not initiate but play along by forwarding, reading, etc)
    • Bystanders / Friends of Targets (not involved other than as observers)

(Bhat, C. S., 2007)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

i safe survey on cb 1 500 4 th 8 th grade students 2004
42% bullied while online

1 in 4 reported it happened more than once

58% reported “mean & hurtful” things were said to them online

More than 4 out of 10 said it happened more than once

53% admitted that they said something “mean & hurtful” online

More than 1 in 3 reported doing it more than once

i-Safe Survey on CB(1,500 4th – 8th grade students, 2004)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

cb survey of 384 students under age 18
CB Survey of 384 students (under age 18)
  • 11% bullied others online
  • 29% victims of cyberbullying
  • 47% witnessed cyberbullying
  • 60% ignored by others online
  • 30% were called names online
  • 21.4% threatened online
  • 19.8% picked on
  • 19.3% made fun of
  • 18.8% had rumors spread about them

Chat rooms were the most prevalent forum of cyberbullying in this

study

(Patchin & Hinduja, 2006)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

international studies on cb
International Studies on CB
  • Study in Canada on CB with 264 junior high students Li (2006)
    • Aware of CB?
      • 55.6% males and 54.5% females
    • Been a victim of CB?
      • 25% of males & 25.6% of females
  • Study in U.K. on 11-19 year olds NCH, 2006)
    • One in 5 have been cyberbullied
      • CB took place via email, chatroom, text
      • Most prevalent form was text messaging on cell phones

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide17
Current Study: Prevalence, Types, Effects of, Actions Taken, and Attitudes Toward Cyberbullying in High School
  • Research Questions:
    • Do undergraduate college students report experiencing CB during their last year of high school?
    • What forms of CB do participants report?
    • How did CB affect participants or their friends?
    • What actions did participants take when they were cyberbullied?
    • What actions would participants take or recommend if they were cyberbullied?
    • What are participants’ attitudes toward CB?

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide18
Current Study: Prevalence, Types, Effects of, Actions Taken, and Attitudes Toward Cyberbullying in High School
  • Project research team
    • Christine Suniti Bhat, Kelly E. Roberts, Heidi Llewellyn
  • Survey developed for study
    • 4 sections
      • Experiences of CB
      • Effects of CB
      • Actions Taken or Actions they would recommend
      • Attitudes toward CB
  • Surveys administered in classes which typically have larger numbers of freshmen
    • English, Communications, Career & Life Planning
  • Data from 239 participants collected & analyzed (quantitative and qualitative)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

participant demographics
Participant Demographics
  • Gender
    • Female 45.2%
    • Male 54.0%
  • Age Range
    • 18 years - 23 years, 10 months
  • Undergraduate Status
    • Freshman 55.6% Junior 8.4%
    • Sophomore 25.9% Senior 10.0%

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

participant demographics1
Participant Demographics
  • Race
    • African American 8.4%
    • Hispanic 2.9%
    • White/Caucasian 85.8%
    • Asian 0.8%
  • High School Region
    • Urban 15.1%
    • Suburban 66.0%
    • Rural 17.6%

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

participant demographics2
Participant Demographics
  • Type of High School Attended
    • Public 66.5% Private Non-Rel .8%
    • Private Religious 15.5% Single Sex 5.0%
    • Co-Ed 10.9%
  • High School Size
    • 100–500 students 19.2%
    • 501-1000 students 28.9%
    • More than 1001 students 49.4%

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

cb survey section 1
CB Survey: Section 1
  • Each sub-section in Section 1 asked if the participant was a(an):
    • Target of Cyberbullying (T)
    • Saw a friend/acquaintance being targeted Cyberbullying actions (F)
    • Active Cyberbully (initiated CB actions) (A-CB)
    • Passive Cyberbully (did not initiate CB actions but played along) (P-CB)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

cb survey section 11
CB Survey: Section 1

5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = This definitely did not happen

to 5 = This definitely did happen

Instant Messaging: Rumors (Questions 1 – 4)

  • Questions 1 – 4 pertain to the use of instant messaging (IM) to spread rumors about others with the intent of hurting, embarrassing or making fun of them.
  • Someone used IM to start a rumor of this kind about me (T)
  • Someone used IM to start rumors about a friend/acquaintance of mine (F).
  • I initiated IM to spread rumors about someone whom I did not like (A-CB).
  • I did not initiate IM to spread rumors about someone. But I did read them and/or forward them when they were sent to me (P-CB).

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

cb survey section 12
CB Survey: Section 1

myspace.com

  • 8 Tools of CB included in survey
    • Instant Messaging (Rumors) - IMR
      • Instant Messaging (Forwarding without consent) IMF
    • Cell Phone (Pictures) - CPP
    • Cell Phone (Messages) - CPM
    • Email Messages - Email
    • My Space or other Social Networking Site - MSP
    • Blogs - Blogs
    • Voting Booths - VBTH
    • Exclusion - EXC

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

graph showing of sample who reported being a target of each form of cb definitely happened
Graph Showing % of Sample Who Reported Being a TARGET of Each Form of CB (definitely happened)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide26
Graph Showing % of Sample Who Reported Being a FRIEND OF A TARGET of Each Form of CB (definitely happened)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide27
Graph Showing % of Sample Who Reported Being an ACTIVE CYBERBULLY in each Form of CB (definitely happened)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide28
Graph Showing % of Sample Who Reported Being a PASSIVE CYBERBULLY in each Form of CB (definitely happened)

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

overall profile of types of electronic communication used to cyberbully
Overall Profile of Types of Electronic Communication Used to Cyberbully
  • Highest Incidence
    • Instant Messaging Forwarding without consent with the intent to hurt or embarrass
  • 2nd Highest Incidence
    • Instant Messaging Rumors
  • Lowest Incidence
    • Voting Booths
  • 2nd Lowest Incidence
    • Blogs and Exclusion
  • In the middle range
    • Email, Cell phone pictures & messages, My Space

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

cb survey section 2 when i was cyberbullied i felt
74 respondents

EMOTIONS EXPRESSED

Embarrassed

Hurt / Betrayed / Violated

Angry / Mad

Lonely

Sad

Normal

SOME OTHER WORDS USED:

Fun

Wrongly accused, sick to my stomach, confused, horrible, Ashamed, Betrayed, Confused

Honored, just for fun, curious

CB Survey: Section 2 – When I was cyberbullied I felt…

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

cb survey section 2 when my friend was cyberbullied he she felt
123 Respondents

EMOTIONS EXPRESSED

Embarrassed

Sad

Hurt

Angry/Mad

Lonely

Betrayed

Attacked

Fun

Normal

SOME OTHER

WORDS USED

Overwhelmed

Afraid

Uncomfortable

Disgusted

Degraded

Exploited

Humiliated

Like Shit

Revengeful

Suicidal

Forgiving

CB Survey: Section 2 – When my friend was cyberbullied he/she felt…

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

cb survey section 2 after i cyberbullied someone i felt
50 respondents

EMOTIONS EXPRESSED

Sad / bad (for others and self)

Ashamed

Angry / Spiteful

Regretful

Funny – it was a joke

SOME OTHER WORDS

Fine

Fantastic

Any other day

Justified

Immature

Afraid

CB Survey: Section 2 – After I cyberbullied someone I felt…

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

section 3 when i was cyberbullied what actions did i take
Section 3:When I was cyberbullied what actions did I take?

ACTION NUMBER WHO CHOSE THIS FORM OF HELP

  • Kept it to myself 493rd choice
  • Told a friend 741st choice
  • Told a school teacher 9
  • Told the school counselor 77th choice
  • Reported to the principal or 6

other school administrator

  • Reported to the police 4
  • Stopped logging on to my computer 9
  • Changed my cell phone number 5
  • Changed my internet sign-on ID 13
  • Told my parent(s) or guardian 30
  • Reported it to the website administrator 3
  • Ignored it 522nd choice

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

top 3 choices of help sought by targets assessment of helpfulness
Top 3 Choices of Help Sought by Targets & Assessment of Helpfulness
  • Sought help from a friend (n = 74, 31%)
    • 13.8% found this was helpful
    • 14.6% found this was moderately helpful
    • 2.5% found it was not helpful
  • Ignore it (n = 52, 21.8%)
    • 10.5% found this was helpful
    • 7.9% found this was moderately helpful
    • 3.3% found it was not helpful
  • Keep it to Self (n = 49, 20.5%)
    • 6.7% found this was helpful
    • 10.5% found this was moderately helpful
    • 3.3% found it was not helpful

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

least preferred sources of help sought by targets
Least Preferred Sources of Help Sought by Targets
  • Reported to website administrator
  • Reported to police
  • Changed cell phone number

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide36
Section 3:If I were cyberbullied or someone I know was cyberbullied, what actions would I take or advise someone to take?

ACTION NUMBER WHO CHOSE THIS FORM OF HELP

  • Keep it to myself 68
  • Tell a friend 175 1st
  • Tell a school teacher 69
  • Tell the school counselor895th
  • Report to the principal or 64

other school administrator

  • Report to the police 50
  • Stop logging on to computer 62
  • Change cell phone number 63
  • Change internet sign-on ID 108 3rd
  • Tell parent(s) or guardian 118 2nd
  • Report it to the website administrator 69
  • Ignore it 94

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide37
Top 3 Choices of Help Recommended by Participants (if they or a friend were cyberbullied in the future) & Assessment of Helpfulness
  • Seek help from a friend (n = 175, 73.2%)
    • 38.9% thought this would be helpful
    • 31.4% thought this would be moderately helpful
    • 2.9% thought this would not be helpful
  • Tell a parent (n = 118, 49.45%)
    • 27.2% thought this would be helpful
    • 18.8% thought this would be moderately helpful
    • 3.3.% thought this was not helpful
  • Change internet sign-in (n = 108, 45.2%)
    • 19.2% thought this would be helpful
    • 20.5% thought this would be moderately helpful
    • 5.4% thought this would not be helpful

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

least preferred sources of help recommended by participants
Least Preferred Sources of Help Recommended by Participants
  • Report to police
  • Stop using computer
  • Change cell phone number

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

section 4 attitudes toward cb
Section 4: Attitudes Toward CB
  • Aim is to try and understand how high school students view cyberbullying.
  • 30 questions with a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree
  • Examples of questions:
    • CB is an over-rated problem.
    • CB is harmless fun.
    • CB is not really a problem, but parents and other adults think it is one.
    • People who consider suicide because of CB are taking it way too seriously

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide40
Section 4: Attitudes Toward CB I think people who contemplate suicide because of CB are taking it way too seriously.

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

tragic instances of suicide linked to cb
Tragic instances of suicide linked to CB

Megan Meier

  • Age 13, completed suicide in October 2006
  • Hurtful messages sent by “Josh Evans” who presented himself as a 16 year-old male who was being home-schooled.
  • “Megan Meier is a slut.” “Megan Meier is fat.”
  • Mother of one of Megan’s classmates (who lived in the neighborhood) was “Josh”
  • City of Dardenne Prairie passed an ordinance prohibiting harassment that utilizes an electronic medium on Nov 22, 2007

http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Story?id=3882520

Ryan Patrick Halligan

  • Junior high student
  • Completed suicide at age 13 in 2003
  • Victim of cyberbullying and bullying
  • Ryan’s father now gives talks at schools about CB

http://www.ryanpatrickhalligan.org/

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide42
Section 4: Attitudes Toward CB Cyberbullying is not really a problem, but parents and other adults think it is one.

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

slide43
Section 4: Attitudes Toward CB People who initiate cyberbullying actions do it because they don’t realize how harmful it can be.

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

prevention intervention strategies for school personnel
Prevention & Intervention Strategies for School Personnel
  • Know the forms and capabilities of electronic communication tools used by cyberbullies
  • Promote self as being knowledgeable about CB
  • Become familiar with network guides (e.g. MySpace guide) for steps that targets of CB can take
  • Know about helpful resources
    • i-SAFE
    • Center for Safe & Responsible Internet use

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

prevention intervention strategies for school personnel1
Prevention & Intervention Strategies for School Personnel
  • Educate and empower – FRIENDS are the number #1 source of help
    • i-SAFE has an i-MENTOR program
  • Partner with universities or other organizations to provide training to students AND parents
  • Continue programs to develop empathy, social skills, kindness, self esteem, decision-making
  • Encourage targets, friends and bystanders to seek help from adults

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

prevention intervention strategies focused on students parents
Prevention & Intervention Strategies Focused on Students & Parents
  • Discourage strategies of keeping CB to oneself, ignoring, and retaliating
  • Discuss potential problems of sharing confidences over IM or cell phones
  • Educate parents AND students about CB that can start with “friends” or former friends
  • Educate parents about not over-reacting with harsh sanctions
    • e.g., banning use of computer

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

advocacy cyberbullying laws
Advocacy & Cyberbullying Laws
  • Lobby for school districts to incorporate CB into their bullying policies
  • Solicit support from legislators to develop specific policies related to CB
  • Several states that have passed cyberbullying legislation (e.g., Arkansas, Iowa, Idaho and South Carolina).
  • Other states currently considering such legislation

State Legislatures. (June, 2007). Trends and Transitions. Retrieved October 17,2007, from

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Cyberbullying.-a0164423339

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

ohio anti bullying law
Ohio Anti-Bullying Law

House Bill 276

ACTION DATE

  • Introduced 05-24-05
  • Reported, H. Education 01-11-06
  • Passed House (93-4) 01-24-06
  • Reported, S. Education 12-13-06
  • Passed Senate (27-5) 12-13-06
  • House concurred in Senate amendments (90-5) 12-19-06

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

ohio anti bullying stipulations hb 276
Ohio Anti-bullying Stipulations(HB 276)
  • Requires each school district board of education and each community school governing authority to adopt a policy prohibiting harassment, intimidation, or bullying of any student on school property or at a school-sponsored activity.
  • Requires the State Board of Education to develop a model policy prohibiting student harassment, intimidation, or bullying.
  • Requires the Auditor of State to note in the audit report of each school district and community school whether the district or school has adopted an anti-bullying policy.

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

ohio anti harassment anti intimidation or anti bullying model policy per house bill 276
OHIO ANTI-HARASSMENT, ANTI-INTIMIDATION OR ANTI-BULLYING MODEL POLICYPer House Bill 276

Examples of conduct that could constitute prohibited behaviors:

  • Repetitive and hostile behavior with the intent to harm others through the use of information and communication technologies and other Web based/online sites (also known as “cyberbullying”), such as the following:

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

ohio anti harassment anti intimidation or anti bullying model policy per house bill 2761
OHIO ANTI-HARASSMENT, ANTI-INTIMIDATION OR ANTI-BULLYING MODEL POLICYPer House Bill 276
  • Posting slurs on Web sites where students congregate or on Web logs (personal online journals or diaries)
  • Sending abusive or threatening instant messages
  • Using camera phones to take embarrassing photographs of students and posting them online, and,
  • Using Web sites to circulate gossip and rumors to other students
  • Excluding others from an online group by falsely reporting them for inappropriate language to Internet service providers.

http://www.osba-ohio.org/Files/ModelBullyODE.pdf

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

references
References

Belsey, B. (n.d.). Cyberbullying: An emerging threat to the “Always On” generation. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from http://www.cyberbullying.ca/pdf/feature_dec2005.pdf

Bhat, C. S. (2007). Cyberbullying: What Is It? How Can School Counselors Effectively Address It? (manuscript currently under review).

Hazler, R. J. (1996). Breaking the cycle of violence: Interventions for bullying and victimization. Bristol, PA: Accelerated Development.

i-Safe.org (n. d.). Cyber Bullying: Statistics and Tips. Retrieved December 8, 2006, from http://www.isafe.org/channels/sub.php?ch=op&sub_id=media_cyber_bullying

Li, Q. (2006). Cyberbullying in schools: A research of gender differences. School Psychology International, 27(2), 157-170.

Shariff, S. (2005). Cyber-dilemmas in the new millennium: School obligations to provide student safety in a virtual school environment. McGill Journal of Education, 40 (3).

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti

references1
References

State Legislatures. (June, 2007). Trends and Transitions. Retrieved October 17,2007, from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Cyberbullying.-a0164423339

Strom, R. D. (2005). When teens turn cyberbullies. The Education Digest, 71 (4), 35-41.

MySpace.com (2006). The official school administrator’s guide to understanding MySpace and resolving social networking issues. Retrieved December 13, 2006, from http://www.nsba.org/site/docs/39400/39399.pdf

NCH: The Children’s Charity (2005). Putting U in the picture – Mobile bullying survey 2005.

Retrieved December 8, 2006, from http://www.nch.org.uk/uploads/documents/Mobile_bullying_%20report.pdf

Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies move beyond the school yard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 148-169.

Ryan Patrick Halligan (n.d.). Retrieved January 8, 2007, from http://www.ryanpatrickhalligan.org/

Willard, N. E. (2006). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social cruelty, threats and distress (2nd. ed.). Eugene, OR: Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use (CSRIU).

(c) Bhat, Christine Suniti