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Bellringer :. Have out your SOL packet so I can check up to #85 . Title a page “ Bellringer 1/10/11” Please answer the following questions in complete sentences: What were the goals of the Congress of Vienna? What was Prussia known for under Frederick the Great? What is nationalism?

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  • Have out your SOL packet so I can check up to #85.
  • Title a page “Bellringer 1/10/11”
    • Please answer the following questions in complete sentences:
      • What were the goals of the Congress of Vienna?
      • What was Prussia known for under Frederick the Great?
      • What is nationalism?
  • BJOTD: Why did the traffic light turn red?

National pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals helped nationalism grow.

  • Nationalism led to the creation of new nations.
  • Italy and Germany were the last of the major European nations to unify
unification of italy
Unification of Italy

After the Congress of Vienna

  • Austria ruled the Italian provinces (states) of Venetia and Lombardy in the North
  • Spain ruled the provinces in the South
  • Between 1815 and 1848 increasing amounts of Italians no longer wanted to live under foreign rulers
  • At first, all attempted revolutions failed.
  • The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the north was the most powerful Italian state by 1848.
    • Italians looked to it for leadership
2 leaders help make 1 country
2 (leaders) help make 1 (country)!

In 1852 Count Camillodi Cavour unified northern Italy.

  • In 1852 Sardinia’s King named Count Camillodi Cavour Prime Minister
  • Cavour wanted to unify Italy through diplomacy
    • Diplomacy:
  • To kick out Austria out of the northern provinces, Cavour got help from Napoleon IIIof France

Giuseppe Garibaldi unified Southern Italy

  • In May 1860 a small army of Italian nationalists led by Giuseppe Garibaldi unified southern Italy with help from Cavour
  • In an election voters gave Garibaldi permission to unite Southern Italy with Northern Italy, making one country

In 1870, Italian forces took over the last part of Italy, known as the Papal States,that included Rome and the Pope’s residence

  • Soon after Rome became the capital of the United Kingdom of Italy
the unification caused problems for italy
The Unification Caused Problems for Italy
  • Northern and Southern states spoke different versions of Italian
  • Northern and Southern states had different values, traditions and customs
  • This caused chaos in the government and a poor economy
the rise of prussia germany
The Rise of Prussia (Germany)

After the Congress of Vienna

  • Germany had been called the German Confederation (a collection of small states)
  • The 2 largest states in the Confederation were Austria-Hungary and Prussia

Prussia was the strongest state (primarily made up of ethnic Germans) that wanted to be unified into a nation

  • At first, like most revolutions that occurred around 1848, Prussia’s was unorganized and unsuccessful
  • In Prussia conservatives were called Junkers and they chose one of themselves, Otto von Bismarck to be their Prime Minister to work with King Wilhelm I

Bismarck soon became known as a follower of Realpolitik, which meant Bismarck justified all means to achieve and hold power.

    • Action without morals
    • Rule without consent of a parliament

Prussia must concentrate and maintain its power for the favorable moment which has already slipped by several times. Prussia's boundaries according to the Vienna treaties are not favorable to a healthy state life. The great questions of the time will not be resolved by speeches and majority decisions—that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849—but by iron and blood.

bismarck takes steps
Bismarck Takes Steps
  • In 1864, Bismarck took the first step to create a nationby joining Austria and Prussia.

Dark Blue: Prussia

Light Blue: Prussian Allies

Red: Austria-Hungary

Light Red: Austria’s Allies


Eventually a war broke out between Austria and Prussia. Prussia won and got control of Northern Germany.

  • Bismarck turned his attention to Southern Germany. Many Southerners were Catholic and did not want Bismarck, a Protestant, controlling them.

Bismarck felt he could win support in the South if both parts of the county faced an outside threat, so he made France declare war on Prussia on June 19, 1870. This was known as the Franco-Prussian War.

  • After a long war, Germany won and Germans, both Southern and Northern, celebrated their victorious country (nationalism)

On January 18, 1871 King Wilhelm I of Prussia was crowned Kaiser, or emperor of the 2nd Reich (Empire).

    • 1st Reich: Charlemagne (Holy Roman Empire)
    • 2nd Reich: Wilhelm
    • 3rd Reich: Hitler
  • Bismarck had achieved Prussian dominance over Europe “by blood and iron”
  • Prussia changed its name to Germany
results of unification
Results of Unification
  • The 1815 Congress of Vienna tried to create 5 great equal powers: Britain, France, Austria, Prussia and Russia
  • By 1871 Britain and Germanywere clearly the most powerful- both militarily and economically.
  • Austria, Russia and Italylagged far behind
great britain during the age of revolutions
Great Britain during the Age of Revolutions
  • Unlike the other countries in Europe, Great Britain doesn’t make changes through revolutions.
    • Instead, it makes changes through legislative means
      • In other words, they pass laws
  • New Legislation in Britain
    • Expansion of political rights for all men
    • Slavery is made illegal in the British Empire