Charters and Conferences during World War II. Unlike WW I there was no single peace conference. Instead, there were a series of charters, conferences, understandings, treaties and agreements during and after WW II. . US attitude in 1939-1940.
Unlike WW I there was no single peace conference.
Instead, there were a series of charters, conferences, understandings, treaties and agreements during and after WW II.
Many American people, businesses, and politicians had little faith in Britain’s ability to survive operation Sea Lion.
Many were prepared to accept German hegemony in Europe.
The events of Dunkirk didn’t allay those fears.
Churchill’s stirring speeches helped convince most Americans that Britain would not lose.
The Battle of Britain in the Summer of 1940 was encouraging to Americans.
August 14th 1941
Before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
The Atlantic Charter was drafted by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR).
The Atlantic Charter established a vision for a post-war settlement
1. No territorial gains were to be sought by the United States or the United Kingdom; (Unlike WW I – remember the mandates). Secret treaties between Britain, France, Italy.
2. Territorial adjustments must be in accord with the wishes of the peoples concerned
3. All peoples had a right to self-determination; (De-colonization on the cards unlike WW I).
5. there was to be global economic cooperation and advancement of social welfare.
6. the participants would work for a world free of want and fear.
7. The participants would work for Freedom of the Seas.
8. There was to be disarmament of aggressor nations, and a postwar common disarmament.
Point Four emphasized that both "victor [and] vanquished" would be given market access "on equal terms." This clearly repudiation the punitive trade relations that were established within Europe post- World War I
December 22, 1941 to January 14, 1942
It was the first meeting on military strategy between the heads of government of the United Kingdomand the United States following the United States' entry into World War II.
The USA and Britain stated that victory in Europe was prime objective. This was termed the “The Europe First” strategy. It was also agreed at the conference to combine military resources under one command in the European Theater of Operations (ETO).
Between the major Allies of World War II (USA, Britain and the Soviet Union).
August 12, 1942 to August 17, 1942.
Winston Churchill, the Special Representative of the United States and Joseph Stalin
It is clear Britain wants to avoid (put-off) an attack on northern France. Stalin worried. Why?
28 November to 1st December 1943
The “Big Three”met for the first time.
Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran.
The Origins of the Cold War
Stalin dominated the conference, using the Soviet victory at the Battle of Kursk
Roosevelt attempted to cope with Stalin's demands, but was able to do little except appease Stalin. FDR seemed to trust Stalin.
Churchill mostly argued for his Mediterranean plan instead of Operation Overlord. These divisions played into Stalin's hands.
Churchill and Roosevelt also consented to the USSR setting up puppet communist governments in:
The Baltic States
Romania, and other Eastern European States
Tripartite Dinner Meeting
Churchill had always insisted that individual Germans who had committed crimes should have a trial at the place they had committed them.
Anyway, Churchill stormed out of the dinner when Stalin, perhaps just teasingly, suggested that 100,000 German Staff officers should be executed after the war. Roosevelt, probably trying to lighten the mood, said that he thought that 49,000 would do!
Winston Churchill was the product of the 19th century. Hated totalitarianism and Stalin.
The Western Powers soon realized that Stalin would not honor his free elections promise regarding Poland. After receiving considerable criticism in London following Yalta regarding the atrocities committed in Poland by Soviet troops, Churchill wrote Roosevelt a desperate letter referencing the wholesale deportations and liquidations of opposition Poles by the Soviets. Roosevelt, however, maintained his confidence in Stalin, reasoning that Stalin's early priesthood training had "entered into his nature of the way in which a Christian gentleman should behave.”
Was held at Potsdam, occupied Germany, from July 16 to August 2, 1945.
Germany had already surrendered 8th May.
Participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The three nations were represented Joseph Stalin, initially Prime Minister Winston Churchill and later, Prime Minister Clement Attlee and President Harry S. Truman.