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Kingdom Fungi. Continued. Fungal Phyla. 3 phyla but 4 groups: Phylum Zygomycota (zygomycetes or bread molds): Meiospores made by zygosporangium (resistant microscopic structure).

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kingdom fungi
Kingdom Fungi
  • Continued......
fungal phyla
Fungal Phyla
  • 3 phyla but 4 groups:
  • Phylum Zygomycota (zygomycetes or bread molds): Meiospores made by zygosporangium (resistant microscopic structure).
  • Phylum Ascomycota (ascomycetes or sac fungi): Meiospores made in sac-like ascus. Asci (plural) containing in fruiting body called ascoma (plural ascomata).
  • Phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes or club fungi): Meiospores made on club-like basidium. Basidia (plural) contained in fruiting body called basidioma (plural basidiomata).
fungal phyla3
Fungal Phyla
  • 3 phyla but 4 groups
  • 4th group? Fungi that don’t make meiospores (to our knowledge)
  • Called Imperfect Fungi
  • Reproduce only asexually (by mitospores)
  • Not a true phylum but a temporary holding group.
fungal phyla zygomycota
Fungal Phyla: Zygomycota
  • Small group (1,000 species)
fungal phyla zygomycota5
Fungal Phyla: Zygomycota
  • Small group (1,000 species)
  • Make coenocytic hyphae (no crosswalls).
fungal phyla zygomycota6
Fungal Phyla: Zygomycota
  • Zygosporangium is key trait: often thick-walled and stress-resistant
  • No dikaryotic hyphae: karyogamy followed by meiosis.

Zygosporangium

photo

Zygosporangia

of 3 genera of

zygomycetes

fungal phyla zygomycota7
Fungal Phyla: Zygomycota
  • Make two types of spores:
    • meiospores from zygosporangium
    • mitospores (asexual) from mitosporangia. These help fungus to spread rapidly.

mitospores

meiospores

fungal phyla ascomycota
Fungal Phyla: Ascomycota
  • Largest group of fungi (32,000 species)

Scarlet

cup

Morel

Carbon

fungus

slide10

Ascoma

  • Meiospores (called ascospores) made in ascus in ascoma (fruiting body)
  • Dikaryotic hyphae and monokaryotic hyphae together form ascoma.
fungal phyla ascomycota11
Fungal Phyla: Ascomycota
  • Mitospores often made by pinching off cells at tips of hyphae. These called conidia. Each can start new mycelium.
fungal phyla ascomycota12
Fungal Phyla: Ascomycota
  • Yeasts: an important group of (mostly) ascomycetes
  • Fermentation by yeasts useful for making alcoholic beverages and in baking. Worth billions of dollars a year to industry.

Modern industrial

wine-making

fungal phyla ascomycota13
Fungal Phyla: Ascomycota
  • Yeasts: an important group of (mostly) ascomycetes
  • Some yeasts can cause disease: yeast infections and others.

Yeast infection

between toes

fungal phyla ascomycota14
Fungal Phyla: Ascomycota

Morel

  • Some ascomata are edible and highly prized by gourmets
  • Truffles (worth up to $320/pound)
  • Morels

Truffle

cut open

Pile of

truffles

fungal phyla basidiomycota
Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota
  • Large group (22,000 species)

Earth stars

Inky caps

fungal phyla basidiomycota17
Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota
  • Meiospores made on club-shaped basidium in basidioma (fruiting structure)
  • Dikaryotic hyphae predominate in life of organism, and basidioma made only of these hyphae.
fungal phyla basidiomycota18
Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota

A mushroom

  • Basidiomata commonly observed.

A jelly fungus

A stinkhorn

A shelf or bracket fungus

fungal phyla basidiomycota19
Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota
  • Sometimes form circle as fungus grows from initial point: “fairy ring”
fungal phyla basidiomycota20
Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota
  • Sexual reproduction: Usually do not make mitospores, but mycelium can become fragmented to form separate individuals.
fungal phyla basidiomycota21
Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota
  • Humongous fungus!
  • Largest organism on planet?
  • Armillaria in National Forest in Oregon reported to be 3.5 miles across, cover 2,200 acres. May be 2,400 yr old.

Fig. 36.6

Aerial view of smaller forest patches infected by Armillaria

in Montana

fungal phyla basidiomycota22
Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota
  • Importance:
    • decomposers

Rotting log

with basidiomata

on it

fungal phyla basidiomycota23
Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota
  • Importance:
    • food (basidioma eaten, but beware of poisonous ones)

Amanita (death cap fungus:

A poisonous basidioma

fungal phyla basidiomycota24
Fungal Phyla: Basidiomycota
  • Importance:
    • pathogens of plants (smuts and rusts cause billions of dollars in damage to grain crops).

Corn smut

Stem

rust

on

wheat

Ergot on wheat

or rye

Ergotism, LSD,

Salem witch trials

fungal groups fungi imperfecti
Fungal Groups: Fungi Imperfecti
  • Large group (17,000 species)
  • Hyphae septate
  • Reproduction asexual only, by conidia
  • Most thought to be Ascomycota fungi, but until sexual reproduction observed we can’t be sure!

Fig. 36.12, showing

conidia of several

genera

fungal groups fungi imperfecti26
Fungal Groups: Fungi Imperfecti
  • Importance
    • decomposers
    • food rotters (can make toxins: aflatoxins in peanuts)
    • food production (flavor cheeses: Roquefort, Bleu cheese)

Bleu cheese

fungal groups fungi imperfecti27
Fungal Groups: Fungi Imperfecti
  • Importance
    • produce antibiotics (ex, penicillin from Penicillium) and other drugs (cyclosporin)

Note inhibited growth of Staph bacterium near fungus colony

fungal groups fungi imperfecti28
Fungal Groups: Fungi Imperfecti
  • Importance
    • plant and animal diseases (human examples: athlete’s foot and ringworm)

Athlete’s foot infections

Ringworm on leg

special fungal mutualisms
Special Fungal Mutualisms
  • Mutualism: relationship between 2 species where both benefit
  • Lichens: partnership between fungi and unicellular photosynthesizer (green alga or cyanobacteria)

Fig. 36.13

special fungal mutualisms30
Special Fungal Mutualisms
  • Fungus forms body and protects and directs photosynthesizer, obtains materials from partner
  • Together, can colonize harsh environments.

Fig. 36.14

lichen importance
Lichen Importance
  • Primary producers in harsh environments (base of food chains)
  • Ex, reindeer in arctic eat large amounts of lichens
  • Some are pollution sensitive: used as bioindicators of air quality.
special fungal mutualisms32
Special Fungal Mutualisms
  • Mycorrhizae: Association of fungus with plant root
  • Common: 90% of plants do this!
  • Mutualism: fungus extends into soil and aids in uptake of nutrients (P, Zn, Cu in particular) for plant
  • Fungus obtains sugars from plant.
special fungal mutualisms33
Special Fungal Mutualisms
  • Important in revegetation/reclamation of disturbed areas: if fungi not present, plants don’t do well!.

Plant on left grown

without mycorrhizal fungi

special fungal mutualisms34
Special Fungal Mutualisms
  • Two types: endomycorrhizae in which fungus penetrates root cells
  • Ectomycorrhizae in which fungus penetrates between root cells.

Fig. 36.15b

Fig. 36.15a

special fungal use biocontrol
Special Fungal Use: Biocontrol
  • Biocontrol: Using an organism’s natural enemies against it
  • Some fungi attack insect pests
  • Some fungi capture and consume nematodes (roundworms) that can cause agricultural problems.

Nematode predator fungus showing ring-like traps holding worm

Fly killed by fungus

plants kingdom plantae
Plants: Kingdom Plantae
  • Large: 300,000 species
plants kingdom plantae37
Plants: Kingdom Plantae
  • Important:
    • Gorgeous
plants kingdom plantae38
Plants: Kingdom Plantae
  • Important:
    • Major producers in terrestrial ecosystems
plants kingdom plantae39
Plants: Kingdom Plantae
  • Important:
    • Vital for human food, medicines, clothing, building materials, etc.

Foxglove: source of

digitalin (heart med.)

Cotton

Corn

Lumber from trees

plants kingdom plantae40
Plants: Kingdom Plantae
  • Important:
    • Create much of the oxygen in atmosphere (and ozone!)

Aquatic plant making

oxygen bubbles

during photosynthesis

oxygen and ozone
Oxygen and Ozone
  • Ozone is pollutant at Earth’s surface
  • At outer atmosphere, oxygen gas produces ozone layer
  • Vital, as it absorbs lots of ultraviolet (UV) radiation
  • UV radiation damages DNA in skin cells
  • Can cause skin cancer.
the ozone hole
The Ozone Hole
  • Some pollutants damage ozone layer
  • It’s getting thinner
  • At South Pole, a hole has started to appear
  • Getting larger.
the ozone hole43
The Ozone Hole
  • Some pollutants damage ozone layer (getting thinner)
  • At South Pole, a “hole” has started to appear.
the ozone hole44
The Ozone Hole
  • UV light is one cause of skin cancer
  • Australia already has highest skin cancer rate on Earth.
plants general features
Plants: General Features
  • Chemistry
    • chlorophylls a + b, carotenoids (accessory pigments that aid photosynthesis)
    • energy stored as starch
plants general features46
Plants: General Features
  • Chemistry
    • cell walls of cellulose

Fig. 5.9a

plants general features47
Plants: General Features
  • Chemistry
    • review: starch and cellulose are both made of glucose.

Fig. 3.27

plants general features48
Plants: General Features
  • Water-saving features (most)
    • cuticle: waxy layer on body surface
    • stomata: specialized cells that form pores in surface (let CO2 in for photosynthesis, can close to prevent water loss when it’s dry)

Glowing

layer is cuticle

plants general features49
Plants: General Features
  • Water transport tissues: vascular tissues
    • Xylem: dead cells that carry water. Walls rigid with lignin (reinforcing material, resists decomposition)
    • Phloem: living cells that carry sugars.

Xylem

tissue

Phloem tissue

plants general features50
Plants: General Features
  • Reproductive features
    • Sporic meiosis (form gametophyte and sporophyte bodies)
    • Gametes specialized (oogamy)
      • eggs: contain genes and stores materials (large)
      • sperm: contain genes. Small to be mobile
    • Gametangia specialized
      • made of many cells (multicellular)
      • with outside layer of protective cells (sterile jacket)
plants general features51
Plants: General Features
  • Reproductive features
    • Gametangia specialized
      • antheridium: gametangium that contains sperm
      • archegonium: gametangium that contains an egg

Archegonium

Antheridium

plants general features52
Plants: General Features
  • Reproductive features
    • Egg fertilized in archegonium
    • Zygote starts to grow in archegonium
      • embryo: young sporophyte retained and nourished by parent sporophyte

Young embryo

in archegonium

Older embryo

plants general features53
Plants: General Features
  • Reproductive features
    • Make only meiospores (no mitospores for asexual reproduction)
    • These made in meiosporangia (spore containers), called just sporangia because no mitospores made
    • Inside meiosporangia, diploid cells called meiospore mother cells undergo meiosis to make meiospores (sometimes called just spores because no mitospores are made).
plants general features54
Plants: General Features
  • General Life Cycle

Fig.

37.3

plants where from
Plants: Where from?
  • Green algae: One line of green algae gave rise to all plants

Fig.

32.12

plants where from56
Plants: Where from?
  • Green algae. One line of green algae gave rise to all plants
  • Plantae are monophyletic

Fig.

37.2