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Classroom Applications of PBIS. Major portions of the following material were developed by: George Sugai and Rob Horner OSEP Funded Technical Assistance Center www.pbis.org In conjunction with The Iowa Behavioral Alliance (An Initiative of the Iowa Dept. of Education) www.rc4alliance.org.

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slide1

Classroom Applications of PBIS

Major portions of the following material were developed by:

George Sugai and Rob Horner OSEP Funded Technical Assistance Center

www.pbis.org

In conjunction with

The Iowa Behavioral Alliance (An Initiative of the Iowa Dept. of Education)

www.rc4alliance.org

slide2

School-Wide Systems

Non Classroom

Setting

Systems

Classroom

Systems

Individual Student

Support Systems

why formalize classroom management
Why formalize classroom management?

Arrange environment to maximize opportunities for

  • Academic achievement
  • Social success
  • Effective & efficient teaching
slide4

Classroom Setting Systems

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged
  • Classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged
  • Ratio of 5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction
  • Active supervision
  • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors
  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors
  • Effective academic instruction & curriculum
how is my classroom management
How is My Classroom Management?

Brandi Simonsen, Sarah Fairbanks,

Amy Briesch, & George Sugai

University of Connecticut

Center on Behavioral Education and Research

7r

Number a piece of paper from 1 to 10.

1 i have arranged my classroom to minimize crowding and distraction
1. I have arranged my classroom to minimize crowding and distraction.
  • Room arrangement consistent with instructional goals
  • High traffic areas free of congestion
  • All students are easily seen by teacher
  • Frequently used supplies available
  • All students can see instruction
  • Staff & student areas are designated
design physical space
Design physical space
  • Classroom Functions:
    • Independent Work
    • Group work
    • Choice activities
    • Time out or penalty
    • Storage materials & supplies
seating arrangements
Seating Arrangements
  • Ensure all students can see whole group instruction
  • Minimize distractions
  • Use cluster groups for instruction
  • Change seating charts on a periodic basis
  • Vary the seating arrangement on a periodic basis (rows, semicircular, clusters)
  • Three common classroom arrangements:
    • Whole group
    • Small group activities
    • Small group instruction combined with independent work
physical space
Zelda Zany

Effective Classroom Arrangement Activity

Select three of the arrangements in your handout packet and respond to the questions below the diagram.

http://www.aft.org/tools4teachers/index.htm

Physical Space
2 i have maximized structure and predictability in my classroom
2. I have maximized structure and predictability in my classroom.
  • Teacher routines: volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc.
  • Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc.
slide12
2. I have maximized structure and predictability in my classroom (e.g., explicit classroom routines, specific directions, etc.).

Number 2, YES or NO?

3 i have posted taught reviewed and reinforced 3 5 positively stated expectations
3. I have posted, taught, reviewed, and reinforced 3-5 positively stated expectations.
  • Establish behavioral expectations/rules.
  • Teach rules in context of routines.
  • Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context.
  • Monitor students behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback.
  • Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up.
teach rules in the context of routines
Teach Rules in the Context of Routines
  • Teach expectations directly.
    • Define rule in operational terms—tell students what the rule looks like within routine.
    • Provide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following within routine.
  • Actively involve students in lesson—game, role-play, etc. to check for their understanding.
  • Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior in the natural setting.
teach expectations
Teach Expectations

Teach social skills as you would academic skills:

  • Describe
  • Model
  • Practice/role play
  • Give feedback
  • Transfer/generalize
maintenance plan
Maintenance Plan

Goal:Students perform the skill without having to think about it

  • Gradual process

Once initial teaching has been conducted use these steps for maintenance:

Provide:

Reminders

Supervision

Feedback

teach students to self manage
Teach Students to Self-Manage
  • Once students know the routines, allow routine initiation to be prompted by normal events (the bell… completion of an assignment) rather than teacher prompts.
  • Teach self-management
    • The target behavior
    • The self-management behavior
        • Prompts
        • Consequences
prompt or remind students of the rule
Prompt or Remind Students of the Rule
  • Provide students with visual prompts (e.g., posters, illustrations, etc).
  • Use pre-corrections, which include “verbal reminders, behavioral rehearsals, or demonstrations of rule-following or socially appropriate behaviors that are presented in or before settings were problem behavior is likely”(Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997).
3 i have posted taught reviewed and reinforced 3 5 positively stated expectations or rules
3. I have posted, taught, reviewed, and reinforced 3-5 positively stated expectations (or rules).

Number 3, YES or NO?

4 i provided more frequent acknowledgement for appropriate behaviors than inappropriate behaviors
4. I provided more frequent acknowledgement for appropriate behaviors than inappropriate behaviors
  • Maintain at least 5 to 1
  • Interact positively once every 5 minutes
  • Follow correction for rule violation with positive reinforcer for rule following
4 i provided more frequent acknowledgement for appropriate behaviors than inappropriate behaviors1
4. I provided more frequent acknowledgement for appropriate behaviors than inappropriate behaviors.

Number 4, YES or NO?

5 i provided each student with multiple opportunities to respond and participate during instruction
5. I provided each student with multiple opportunities to respond and participate during instruction.
  • Vary individual v. group responding
  • Vary response type
    • Oral, written, gestural
  • Increase participatory instruction
    • Questioning, materials
5 i provided each student with multiple opportunities to respond and participate during instruction1
5. I provided each student with multiple opportunities to respond and participate during instruction.

Number 5, YES or NO?

6 my instruction actively engaged students in observable ways e g writing verbalizing
6. My instruction actively engaged students in observable ways (e.g., writing, verbalizing).
  • Vary format
    • Written, choral, gestures
  • Specify observable engagements
  • Link engagement with outcome objectives
slide28

Actively engage students in observable ways.What does the research say?

  • Increasing the pace with which teachers presented students with opportunities to respond was associated with:
    • an increase in on-task behavior
    • an increase in academic engagement
    • a decrease in disruptive behavior
    • an increase in the number of correct responses

(Sutherland, Alder, & Gunter, 2003; West & Sloane, 1986)

slide29

Actively engage students in observable ways.What does the research say?

  • The use of response cards (i.e., all students simultaneously holding up written responses) resulted in an increase in student responses, academic achievement, and on-task behavior (Christle & Schuster, 2003; Lambert, Cartledge, Heward, & Lo, 2006).
    • Response cards
    • Choral responding
    • Traditional hand raising

(Godfrey, Grisham-Brown, & Schuster, 2003)

slide30

Actively engage students in observable ways.What does the research say?

  • Use of computer assisted instruction (CAI):
    • in math resulted in an increase in both active engagement time and on-task behavior for students with ADHD (Ota & DuPaul, 2002)
    • in reading resulted in an increase in both oral reading fluency and on-task behavior for students with ADHD (Clarfield & Stoner, 2005)
  • The use of guided notes (teacher-provided outlines containing main ideas as well as fill-in-the-blanks) during lectures and readings resulted in an increase in academic achievement as measured by quiz scores (Lazarus, 1993; Sweeney et al. 1999)
6 my instruction actively engaged students in observable ways e g writing verbalizing1
6. My instruction actively engaged students in observable ways (e.g., writing, verbalizing).

Number 6, YES or NO?

7 i actively supervised my classroom during instruction
7. I actively supervised my classroom during instruction.
  • Move
  • Scan
  • Interact
  • Remind/precorrect
  • Positively acknowledge
slide33

Active SupervisionWhat does the research say?

  • Use of active supervision (moving, looking, interacting with students, providing positive reinforcement) resulted in:
    • a classroom-wide decrease in minor behavioral incidents (De Pry & Sugai, 2002)
    • higher levels of active participation (moderate to vigorous physical activity) in a physical education class (Schuldheisz & van der Mars, 2001)
slide34

Active SupervisionWhat does the research say?

  • Degree of active supervision—and not the supervisor/student ratio—accounted for the most variance in problem behavior in non-classroom transition settings.
  • A significant inverse relationship was identified between the number of supervisor-student interactions (one component of active supervision) and the degree of problem behavior (Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Lee, 1997)
7 i actively supervised my classroom e g moving scanning during instruction
7. I actively supervised my classroom (e.g., moving, scanning) during instruction.

Number 7, YES or NO?

slide36
8. I ignored or provided quick, direct, explicit reprimands/redirections in response to inappropriate behavior.
  • Respond efficiently
  • Attend to students who are displaying appropriate behavior
  • Follow school procedures for major problem behaviors objectively & anticipate next occurrence
quick error corrections
Quick Error Corrections
  • Your error corrections should be…
    • contingent: occur immediately after the undesired behavior
    • specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing incorrectly and what they should do differently in the future
    • brief: after redirecting back to appropriate behavior, move on
slide38

Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behaviorWhat does the research say?

  • Error correction should be direct, immediate, and end with the student emitting the correct response (Barbetta, Heward, Bradley, & Miller, 1994)
    • Systematic performance feedback delivered to an entire classroom, increased the appropriate behavior of all students, as compared to a control classroom (Winett, & Vachon, 1974)
    • Corrective feedback during oral reading improved word recognition and reading comprehension (Baker, 1992; Singh, 1990; Singh & Singh, 1986)
slide39

Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behaviorWhat does the research say?

  • Publicly posting feedback (e.g., rates of student target problem behaviors), in addition to other strategies, reduced the occurrence of such behaviors (Brantley & Webster, 1993) and classroom transition times (Yarbrough, Skinner, Lee, & Lemmons, 2004)
slide40
8. I ignored or provided quick, direct, explicit reprimands/redirections in response to inappropriate behavior.

Number 8, YES or NO?

9 i have multiple strategies systems in place to acknowledge appropriate behavior
9.I have multiple strategies/systems in place to acknowledge appropriate behavior.
  • Social, tangible, activity, etc.
  • Frequent v. infrequent
  • Predictably v. unpredictably
  • Immediate v. delayed
establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior.
  • Specific and Contingent Praise
  • Group Contingencies
  • Behavior Contracts
  • Token Economies
specific and contingent praise
Specific and Contingent Praise
  • Praise should be…
    • contingent: occur immediately following desired behavior
    • specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing correctly and continue to do in the future
      • “Good job” (not very specific)
      • “I like how you are showing me active listening by having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific)
group contingencies
Group Contingencies
  • Three types:
    • “One for all” (Dependent Group Contingency)
    • “All for one” (Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency)
    • “To each his/her own” (Independent Group Contingency)
further remarks on group contingencies
Further Remarks on Group Contingencies

(Lewis-Palmer & Sugai, 1999)

  • Group contingencies can be an efficient way to reinforce desired behaviors.
  • Without careful monitoring, potentially harmful situations can arise:
    • Peer pressure can turn into ridicule
    • Negative stigma or social status can result
    • May or may not be fair to all clients
  • So, monitor closely and apply the contingencies consistently and systematically.
consequence behavioral contracts
Consequence: Behavioral Contracts
  • A written document that specifies the contingency for an individual student.
  • Contains the following elements:
    • Operational definition of BEHAVIOR
    • Clear descriptions of REINFORCERS
    • OUTCOMES if student fails to meet expectations.
    • Special BONUSES that may be used to increase motivation or participation.

(Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988)

ten basic rules for behavioral contracting homme csanyi gonzales rechs 1970
Ten Basic Rules for Behavioral Contracting(Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, & Rechs, 1970)
  • Payoff (reward) should be immediate.
  • Initially call for and reward successful approximations.
  • Reward frequently with small amounts.
  • Call for and reward accomplishments.
  • Reward the performance after it occurs (i.e., do not bribe the learner).

(As stated in Alberto & Troutman, 1999, pp. 249-250)

ten basic rules for behavioral contracting homme csanyi gonzales rechs 19701
Ten Basic Rules for Behavioral Contracting(Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, & Rechs, 1970)
  • The contract must be fair.
  • The terms must be clear.
  • The contract must be honest.
  • The contract must be positive.
  • Contracting must be used systematically (and consistently).

(As stated in Alberto & Troutman, 1999, pp. 249-250)

establishing a token economy
Establishing a Token Economy
  • Determine and teach the target skills
  • Select tokens
  • Identify what will be back-up reinforcers
  • Identify the number of tokens required to receive back-up reinforcers
  • Define and teach the exchange and token delivery system
  • Define decision rules to change/fade the plan
  • Determine how the plan will be monitored

Guidelines from Sulzer-Azarodd & Mayer, 1991

slide50
9. I have multiple strategies/systems in place to acknowledge appropriate behavior (e.g., class point systems, praise, etc.).

Number 9, YES or NO?

slide51
10. In general, I have provided specific feedback in response to social and academic behavior errors and correct responses.
  • Provide contingently
  • Always indicate correct behaviors
  • Link to context
  • Respond efficiently
  • Attend to students who are displaying appropriate behavior
  • Follow school procedures for major problem behaviors objectively & anticipate next occurrence
classroom and school wide rules
Classroom and School-wide Rules
  • Be clear about what behaviors are to be addressed in the classroom versus those that should be addressed in the office.
    • Balance needs of individual students with problem behavior against needs of other students.
    • Maintain academic engagement of all students
    • Plan ahead with support from other teachers
slide53
10. In general, I have provided specific feedback in response to social and academic behavior errors and correct responses.

Number 10, YES or NO?

how did i do
How did I do?

8-10 “yes” = Super

5-7 “yes” = So So

<5 “yes” = Improvement needed

  • Discuss how your team can share this information with the rest of your staff.
group contingencies1
Group Contingencies
  • Dependent group contingency
    • The same consequence is given to all members of a group.
    • In order to receive the consequence, a selected member must perform at or better than a specified level.
    • One student's behavior can influence the group's consequence.
  • Group consequence, contingent on group.
    • The entire class is considered as one group.
    • An example is making free time dependent on appropriate behavior: an individual's inappropriate activity reduces the entire class's reward.
  • Independent group contingency
    • Each student receives the same consequence for stated behavior