Classroom Systems School-wide PBIS. PBS – Respect & Responsibility. Classroom Setting Evidence Based Practices. Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged Ratio of 5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction
Evidence Based Practices
How can we implement systems that support staff to implement these practices consistently?
Extending PBIS into the Classroom
More information to come with
Minimal # of words
Clear, concrete & specific
Give a reasonable amount of time for behavior to occur
Often convey feelings of frustration or anger
May contain many sets of directionsUse Alpha Commands when responding to problem behavior
Alpha Commands are Clear & Positive
Walk Away & wait
Request in a calm voice
Walk away & Wait 5-10 sec.
Preplanned ConsequenceHave a Routine for Responding to Minor Problem Behavior (p. 8 of packet)
Chris Borgmeier, PhD
Portland State University
Why we do what we do in life and business
#2 on NY Times Bestseller List on March 18th 2012
5ish to 1
60 min x .09/min = 5.4 praise/hour; 1 every 11 minutes
60 min x .04/min = 2.4 praise/hour;
1 every 25 minutes
Research has demonstrated that increased Praise can lead to increases in the following:
Students’ correct responses
Work productivity and accuracy
On-task behavior and attention
Compliance, positive comments about self
Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008
A habit is a formula our brain automatically follows:
When I see CUE, I will do ROUTINE in order to get a REWARD.
Post a visual reminder to praise students in area viewed frequently
Praise in Pairs: After praising one student, find another student exhibiting similar behavior to praise
Acknowledge creatively – use gestures (thumbs up, OK sign, clapping, nod, high five) tangibles (stickers, stars), points toward whole class or individual reward, calling parent to report student success
Training on classroom management practices alone does not result in changes or improved practice
Self-monitoring offers an effective, efficient strategy for improving implementation of classroom practices
(Simonsen, MacSuga, Fallon & Sugai, 2013)
Strategies for Self-Monitoring
Index Card Tearing (long side for positive, short side for negative)
Hash marks on tape on your arm or pant leg
Move Pennies or paperclips from one pocket to other based positive & negative acknowledgements
Brophy, J. (1981). Teacher Praise: A Functional Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 51(1), 5-32.
Conroy, M. A., Sutherland, K. S., Snyder, A., Al-Hendawi, M. & Vo, A. (2009). Creating a positive classroom atmosphere: Teachers’ use of effective praise and feedback. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), pp. 18-26.
Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to Basics Rules, Praise, Ignoring, and Reprimands Revisited. [Article]. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(4), 195-205.
Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), pp. 351-380.
Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W., Skyles, T., & Barnes, L. (2009). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches (2nded). Pacific NorthWest Publishing, Eugene, OR.
Research Studies demonstrating outcomes associated with the use of praise to reprimand
Becker, W.C., Engelmann, S., & Thomas, D.R. (1975). Teaching 2: Cognitive Learning and Instruction. Chicago: Science Research Associates.
Pfiffner, L. J., Rosen, L. A., & O'Leary, S. G. (1985). The efficacy of an all-positive approach to classroom management. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(3), 257-261.
Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-+.
Relationship between praise, rewards, and intrinsic motivation
Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. [Article]. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 344-362.
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1994). Reinforcement, Reward, and Intrinsic Motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64(3), 363-423.
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627-668.