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Classroom Systems School-wide PBIS. PBS – Respect & Responsibility. Classroom Setting Evidence Based Practices. Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged Ratio of 5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction

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Classroom Systems School-wide PBIS

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Classroom Setting

Evidence Based Practices

  • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged
  • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged
  • Ratio of 5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction
  • Active supervision
  • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors
  • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors
  • Effective academic instruction & curriculum

How can we implement systems that support staff to implement these practices consistently?

focus on the classroom
Focus on the Classroom
  • Teachers often fail to integrate SW-PBS practices sufficiently in to the classroom
  • Potential reasons:
    • Need for direct training to generalization or adapt school-wide practices to classroom settings OR
    • That school-wide intervention does not specifically address the broader array of practices required in the classroom
behavioral expectations

Behavioral Expectations

Extending PBIS into the Classroom

defining behavioral expectations classroom routines
Defining Behavioral Expectations & Classroom Routines
  • Link classroom to school-wide expectations
  • What are Classroom Routines?
    • How to:
      • Enter the classroom
      • Sharpen pencil
      • Turn in homework
      • Get a pass
      • Ask for help
      • Participating in Class - Raise hand & wait to be called on
  • Completing a Classroom Matrix w/ Routines
    • See pp. 2-3 in packet
teaching behavioral expectations routines
Teaching Behavioral Expectations & Routines
  • Extending SW-PBS logic into the classroom when Explicitly teaching expected behavior in setting w/ student practice
    • See Sample Lesson Plan (pp. 4-5 in packet)
  • Link classroom to school-wide Schedule forTeaching of Expectations & Routines
teaching behaviors routines
Teaching Behaviors & Routines
  • Tell/model/explain
  • Guide practice
  • Monitor & assess
  • Give positive feedback
    • Give corrective feedback – initial focus on prompting expected behavior
  • Prompt/Precorrect for Expected Behavior
  • Frequent Teaching & Review until class is fluent
video demonstration of teaching routines expectations
Video Demonstration of Teaching Routines & Expectations
  • Watch video
  • Identify:
    • Behavioral Expectations Defined & Taught
    • Classroom Routines Defined and Taught
  • Identify strategies use to instruction expectations & routines
scheduling lessons
Scheduling Lessons
  • Similar to scheduling times to conduct SW PBS Lessons
  • Can schedule times to conduct Classroom lessons & routines
    • In beginning of the year
    • Booster sessions throughout the year
    • Reteaching areas of concern
      • Maybe arriving to class, raising hand & waiting to be called on, etc.
time for teachers to complete
Time for Teachers to Complete


  • Identify and set aside times for teachers to work on this task
  • Teachers may want to work on this in grade level teams to share ideas
  • Have teachers turn in completed Classroom planning worksheets to PBS team to share with other teachers
team work time
Team Work Time
  • How will you extend the link between SW Rules & defining behavioral expectations into the classroom?
  • How will you actively and explicitly set up teachers to make this link in their classrooms?
catch em being good 5 1 ratio

Catch ‘em Being Good 5:1 Ratio

More information to come with

“Building Habits”

extending the acknowledgment system in to the classroom
Extending the Acknowledgment System in to the Classroom
  • Extending the SW Acknowledgment System into the classroom
  • Creating an Additional Classroom Acknowledgment system
    • Use systems to acknowledge individual students & group
  • Have teachers with model acknowledgment systems in the school share how they implement their classroom acknowledgment systems
  • During instruction is when we have the most on our mind – an acknowledgment system can be prompt needed to develop those habits of catching kids doing well
misbehavior happens train staff with strategies for responding
Misbehavior Happens: Train staff with strategies for responding
  • Options for responding to misbehavior in the classroom
  • “Defusing Anger & Aggression” or “ManaginNonCompliance” video by Geoff Colvin
      • Targets Secondary classrooms but useful for Elementary
      • Purchase at through Iris Media
        • Show isolated vignettes
        • Identify specific strategies used in video
        • Identify how & when to use strategy in your classroom
          • Be SPECIFIC -- what to say/ what to do
        • Physically rehearse doing it your way several times
        • Develop prompts to encourage use in classroom
guidelines for responding to misbehavior
Guidelines for Responding to Misbehavior
  • Respond Consistently, Calmly, Briefly & Return to Instruction
    • Goal: pay more time & attention to positive behavior
    • Reduce Student Escalation
    • Reduce amount of missed instructional time
  • See packet – 9 Variables Affecting Compliance
3 cheap easy powerful behavior management tools
3 cheap, easy & powerful Behavior Management Tools
  • Proximity
    • Moving & scanning frequently
    • Slowly moving toward a student & using proximity, instead of verbally addressing
  • Reinforcement
    • Acknowledging other students who are on task
  • Precorrection
    • Frequent pre-teaching & reminders of expectations, before students have chance to engage in problem behavior
use alpha commands when responding to problem behavior
Alpha Commands

Minimal # of words

Clear, concrete & specific

Give a reasonable amount of time for behavior to occur

Beta Commands



Often convey feelings of frustration or anger

May contain many sets of directions

Use Alpha Commands when responding to problem behavior
alpha commands
Alpha Commands

Alpha Commands are Clear & Positive

  • “Pick up your chair, sit down, and draw a picture of your favorite animal”

instead of

  • “How many times have I told you not to get up out of your seat. Don’t you know how to act in this class? I’m getting tired of telling you what to do a hundred times. Now, get to work.”
have a routine for responding to minor problem behavior p 8 of packet

Specific Request

If, Compliance

Walk Away & wait

5-10 seconds

If, Non-Compliance

“Please _________”

Request in a calm voice


If, Compliance

Walk away & Wait 5-10 sec.


If, Noncompliance

Preplanned Consequence

Have a Routine for Responding to Minor Problem Behavior (p. 8 of packet)
classroom systems school wide pbis increasing specific praise 5 to 1 ratio

Classroom SystemsSchool-wide PBISIncreasing Specific Praise (5 to 1 Ratio)

Chris Borgmeier, PhD

Portland State University


The Power of Habit:

Why we do what we do in life and business

Charles Duhigg

Video Intro

#2 on NY Times Bestseller List on March 18th 2012

pbis classroom system next steps1
PBIS Classroom System: Next Steps
  • Brief presentation of practice
  • Time to individualize practice to fit your classroom, context & needs
  • Brief presentation of Self-Monitoring use of your targeted practice
  • Time to develop an individualized Self-Monitoring Plan
praise the 5 1 ratio
Praise & the 5:1 Ratio
  • Pay attention to What you Want to See
  • Acknowledge positive behavior 5 times more often that you respond to negative behavior
  • Keep it genuine; not the same for all kids
  • Negative interactions are not wrong and are sometimes necessary; the keys are:
    • How the negative interactions are provided (gentle, respectful corrections) &
    • the ratio
  • There is a ceiling effect at 13 to 1 – but we are at very little risk of achieving this in schools; more often we are at 1:1 or even more negatives than positives
why praise acknowledge desired behavior
Why Praise & Acknowledge Desired Behavior?
  • Reinforce teaching of new behaviors
  • Behavior is likely to become a habit and recur in the future only if demonstrating it has been beneficial
  • Harness the influence of kids who are showing expected behaviors to encourage the kids who are not
  • Strengthen positive behaviors that can compete with problem behavior
  • Improve school climate
  • Create positive interactions and rapport with students
5 1 positive to negative ratio
5:1 Positive to Negative Ratio
  • The field at large recommends somewhere between 3 and 6 positive to every 1 negative
    • Gable, Hester, Rock & Hughes, 2009; Kerr & Nelson, 2006; Nafpaktitis, Mayer & Butterworth, 1995; Stichter et al., 2009; Walker, Ramsey & Gresham, 2004)
  • Mental Health (Frederickson & Losada, 2005)
    • 2.5 to 1 = normal functioning
    • 4.3 to 1 = optimal functioning
      • Tipping point seems to be 2.9 to 1

5ish to 1

5 1 ratio it s not just for kids
5:1 ratio, it’s not just for kids
  • Married couples that last (Gottman, 1994)
    • Flourishing marriages: 5.1 to 1 speech acts & 4.7 to 1 for observed emotions
    • Poor marriages: 0.9 to 1 speech & 0.7 to 1 actions
  • Business teams
    • High Performance teams = 5.6 to 1
    • Medium Performance teams = 1.9:1
    • Low Performance teams = 1 to 2.7
      • Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy 2004


60 min x .09/min = 5.4 praise/hour; 1 every 11 minutes


60 min x .04/min = 2.4 praise/hour;

1 every 25 minutes

research on praise acknowledging positive behavior
Research on Praise & Acknowledging Positive Behavior

Research has demonstrated that increased Praise can lead to increases in the following:

Students’ correct responses

Work productivity and accuracy

Academic performance

On-task behavior and attention

Compliance, positive comments about self

Cooperative play

Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008

critical features of acknowledgement
Critical Features of Acknowledgement
  • Acknowledgment of Positive Behavior (praise) is most effective if it is immediate, specific, sincere, varied, student referenced
    • Immediate
    • Specific: explicitly describes the desired behavior performed
    • Sincere: credible and authentic
    • Varied: varied word choice, varied academic and behavior praise, whole group, small group and individual
    • Student referenced: compares student performance to previous performance and does not compare students to others; acknowledge effort
positive acknowledgement praise examples
Positive Acknowledgement/ Praise examples
  • “Excellent job listening and following directions the first time.”
  • “Your eyes are on me and your mouth is quiet. Thank you for being ready to learn.”
  • “Wow, you completed your math work correctly before the end of class.”
when acknowledging positive behavior
When Acknowledging Positive Behavior
  • Identify the specific behavior being acknowledged
  • Link the behavior to one of the SW-Rules
    • “Wow, thank you for helping to clean up the spill, that was very Responsible of you”
    • “Thank you, good job!”
increase positive feedback decreasing negative
Increase Positive Feedback & Decreasing Negative
  • ID a specific problem behavior you would like to see less of and define the opposite of this behavior
  • Teach & re-teach the expected/desired behavior
  • Provide “precorrections” in advance to set up positive behavior
  • Ignore the problem behavior and “catch” the students meeting expectations w/ specific positive feedback
        • Coaching Classroom Management, 2006
procedural steps for increasing positive acknowledgement ratio
Procedural Steps for increasing Positive Acknowledgement Ratio
  • Identify challenging times, routines and behaviors that occur throughout the day
  • Identify desired behaviors to focus on praising, particularly during challenging times
  • Explicitly teach students to engage in desired behaviors
procedural steps for increasing positive acknowledgement ratio1
Procedural Steps for increasing Positive Acknowledgement Ratio
  • Identify a range of phrases, gestures, methods for acknowledging targeted desired behaviors, particularly identify ways to replace corrections with acknowledgement of proximal peers for desired behavior
  • Monitor for desired behaviors & acknowledge individuals or group of students immediately following desired behavior
  • Implement personal prompts and monitoring to encourage replacement of corrections with acknowledgments
the habit loop from the power of habit
The Habit Loop from “The Power of Habit”

A habit is a formula our brain automatically follows:

When I see CUE, I will do ROUTINE in order to get a REWARD.

your turn
Your Turn
  • Take a few minutes to Complete Step 1 of the Worksheet
  • Remember, we’d like to collect a copy of your worksheet at the end of the training today to plan for support
your turn1
Your Turn
  • Take a few minutes to Complete Step 2 of the Worksheet
  • Share your strategies with a partner
set up systems to increase positive acknowledgement
Set up Systems to Increase Positive Acknowledgement
  • Good Behavior Game
    • T-chart
    • Teach behavioral expectations
    • Students earn points for positive behavior
    • Teacher gets points for negative behavior
    • Total points at end to determine if “reward” is earned
  • Hand out Acknowledgement Tokens or Tallies for positive behavior
    • Individuals or Pre-arranged Groups in the classroom

Students Teacher

ways to encourage monitor your ratio
Ways to Encourage & Monitor your Ratio

Post a visual reminder to praise students in area viewed frequently

Praise in Pairs: After praising one student, find another student exhibiting similar behavior to praise

Acknowledge creatively – use gestures (thumbs up, OK sign, clapping, nod, high five) tangibles (stickers, stars), points toward whole class or individual reward, calling parent to report student success

self monitoring
Self Monitoring

Training on classroom management practices alone does not result in changes or improved practice

Self-monitoring offers an effective, efficient strategy for improving implementation of classroom practices

(Simonsen, MacSuga, Fallon & Sugai, 2013)

self monitoring1
Self Monitoring

Strategies for Self-Monitoring

Index Card Tearing (long side for positive, short side for negative)

Hash marks on tape on your arm or pant leg

Golf Counter

Move Pennies or paperclips from one pocket to other based positive & negative acknowledgements

your turn2
Your Turn
  • Take a few minutes to Complete Step 3 of the Worksheet
  • Make sure to Identify meaningful& feasible supports
    • Identify your strategy for Self-Monitoring
    • Develop Peer Strategies for support – you can discuss with a peer
  • Please turn in a copy of your implementation plan with your name on it before you leave
    • We will copy and get it back to you
ongoing implementation supports
Ongoing Implementation Supports
  • Graphic summary of Self-monitoring data will be provided
  • Review in PLC teams
    • Set goals
    • Problem Solve
    • Encourage, Support & Celebrate
team school wide supports
Team & School-wide Supports
  • Team Supports (e.g. Dept., Grade Level, PLC)
    • Make Classroom improvement a regular part of meetings and activities
    • Begin meeting w/ 2 minute check:
      • Check-In & Celebrate successes
      • Encourage implementation
      • Problem solve & enhance implementation
      • Support Habit Development!
  • School-wide Supports
    • Reminder on Morning announcements
    • Regular review/check-in at staff meeting
      • Rewards for implementers & exemplars
        • Recognize your Buddy
        • Recognize someone you observed engage in the practice
    • Daily or weekly implementation updates & recognition

Descriptive Readings

Brophy, J. (1981). Teacher Praise: A Functional Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 51(1), 5-32.

Conroy, M. A., Sutherland, K. S., Snyder, A., Al-Hendawi, M. & Vo, A. (2009). Creating a positive classroom atmosphere: Teachers’ use of effective praise and feedback. Beyond Behavior, 18(2), pp. 18-26.

Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to Basics Rules, Praise, Ignoring, and Reprimands Revisited. [Article]. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(4), 195-205.

Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D. & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for Research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), pp. 351-380.

Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W., Skyles, T., & Barnes, L. (2009). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches (2nded). Pacific NorthWest Publishing, Eugene, OR.

Research Studies demonstrating outcomes associated with the use of praise to reprimand

Becker, W.C., Engelmann, S., & Thomas, D.R. (1975). Teaching 2: Cognitive Learning and Instruction. Chicago: Science Research Associates.

Pfiffner, L. J., Rosen, L. A., & O'Leary, S. G. (1985). The efficacy of an all-positive approach to classroom management. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(3), 257-261.

Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-+.

Relationship between praise, rewards, and intrinsic motivation

Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practice. [Article]. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 344-362.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1994). Reinforcement, Reward, and Intrinsic Motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64(3), 363-423.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627-668.