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Designing Effective Classrooms

Designing Effective Classrooms

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Designing Effective Classrooms

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  1. Designing Effective Classrooms Cynthia M. Anderson University of Oregon

  2. Overview • Universal classroom interventions • Classroom rules • Acknowledgement system • Responding to problem behavior • SWPBS and classroom systems • Managing escalations

  3. Universal Supports • Foundations • Expectations and rules

  4. Rationale for Rules in Classrooms • Provides • Structure • Consistency • Positive climate • Allow teacher to maintain positive environment & focus on academics

  5. General Classroom Rules • Linked to school-wide program • Relevant for YOUR classroom • What are problem routines, settings? • What behaviors would you like to see more of? • Positively stated & succinct • Target observable behaviors • Posted in public, easily seen place

  6. General Classroom Rules • Linked to school-wide program • Positively stated & succinct (3-5) • Observable behaviors • Posted in public, easily seen place • Taught and re-taught frequently • Enforced consistently Teaching Matrix

  7. Rules for Routines: Establish a Predictable Environment • Identify routines • How to enter class and begin to work • How to predict the schedule for the day • What to do if you do not have materials • What to do if you need help • What to do if you need to go to the bathroom • What to do if you are handing in late material • What to do if someone is bothering you • How to determine if you are doing well in class • Establish signals for correct behavior • Teach effective transitions

  8. Designing Classroom Routines Orient to teacher, be quiet Explain rule, demonstrate Explain rule, students demonstrate examples and non-examples Walk to door, wait for teacher to begin walk Alarm rings, teacher raises hand

  9. Action Planning • What are your classroom rules? • Do 80% of students consistently follow rules without reminders or prompts? • Are there other problems occurring in your room? • Consider: • Are your rules linked to the SWPBS program? • Do your rules reflect common discipline problems? • Do all students know and understand your rules and consequences? • Are your rules clearly stated, positively worded, and few in number? • What changes could you make to your rules?

  10. Universal Supports • Foundations • Expectations and rules • Acknowledgement Systems • Strategies for responding to problem behavior

  11. Acknowledgement Systems • Increase pro-social behavior • Focus staff and student attention on desired behaviors • Foster a positive climate • Increase time spent on academics

  12. Why Shouldn’t we acknowledge appropriate behavior? • They should do it because it is the right thing to do • Rewards take away intrinsic motivation • They are too old for acknowledgement/rewards • Our kids don’t need that!

  13. Acknowledgement: Formal vs. informal • Formal Acknowledgement • Linked to SWPBS • Independent system • Informal Acknowledgement—CRITICAL • Frequency • Use to “turn situation around”

  14. Acknowledgement Tips • Simple systems are best • High frequency in new systems • Acknowledgement should be contingent on behavior • Avoid threats and response cost • Avoid removing opportunity for acknowledgement

  15. Acknowledgement Systems • Types of systems • Whole-class • Small group • Individual student

  16. Acknowledgement Systems • Whole-class • Best for • Discrete activities • Situations when each instance of correct behavior can be acknowledged • Embed within other systems • Examples

  17. Acknowledgement Systems • Whole-class • Small group- “teams” • “Work bursts” • Example: Classroom Game (TGBG)

  18. The Good Behavior Game • Overview • Rationale for use • Planning for TGBG • Implementing TGBG • Potential pitfalls and problem solving

  19. TGBG: Overview • General overview • Students divided into teams • Points allocated based on student behavior when game is in effect • Rewards delivered periodically (end of day, end of week) based on points earned

  20. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1

  21. Rationale for use • Large body of empirical support • Easily modified for • Different class sizes • Age groups • Ability levels • Activities • Daily variations in the classroom

  22. Variations of TGBG • Points for inappropriate vs. appropriate behavior • Appropriate: start at zero • Inappropriate: start at pre-determined number

  23. Variations of TGBG • Points for inappropriate vs. appropriate behavior • Tiers of acknowledgements • Primary acknowledgement—team with most points • “Good job” acknowledgement for all teams above (or below) criterion

  24. Variations of TGBG • Points for inappropriate vs. appropriate behavior • Tiers of acknowledgements • Known vs. unknown criterion • Known criterion—announced before game begins • Unknown • Teacher knows and announces at end of day • Surprise to everyone

  25. Variations of TGBG • Points for inappropriate vs. appropriate behavior • Tiers of acknowledgements • Known vs. unknown criterion • Standing teams vs. rotating teams

  26. Planning for TGBG • Why might you use TGBG?

  27. Planning for TGBG • Why do you want to use TGBG? • What other changes will you make to classroom management? • Are expectations and rules established and taught? • Consider existing acknowledgement systems—are they working? • Remove or modify other acknowledgement systems?

  28. Planning for TGBG • Why do you want to use TGBG? • What other changes will you make to classroom management? • Which variations of TGBG will you include? • Points for inappropriate vs. appropriate behavior • Tiers of acknowledgements • Known vs. unknown criterion • Standing teams vs. rotating teams

  29. Planning for TGBG • Why do you want to use TGBG? • What other changes will you make to classroom management? • Which variations of TGBG will you include? • When will TGBG be scheduled? • During specific activities each day • For an entire class period • During “randomly selected” activities each day

  30. Planning for TGBG • Why do you want to use TGBG? • What other changes will you make to classroom management? • Which variations of TGBG will you include? • When will TGBG be scheduled? • How will teams be chosen? • Randomly determined teams • Random with some planning • Constant versus changing teams

  31. Planning for TGBG • Why do you want to use TGBG? • What other changes will you make to classroom management? • Which variations of TGBG will you include? • When will TGBG be scheduled? • How will teams be chosen? • What appropriate behaviors will be targeted? • Link to your classroom expectations and rules for that activity or routine

  32. Planning for TGBG • Why do you want to use TGBG? • What other changes will you make to classroom management? • Which variations of TGBG will you include? • When will TGBG be scheduled? • How will teams be chosen? • What appropriate behaviors will be targeted? • Identify acknowledgements and delivery criterion and schedule

  33. Planning for TGBG • Why do you want to use TGBG? • What other changes will you make to classroom management? • Which variations of TGBG will you include? • When will TGBG be scheduled? • How will teams be chosen? • What appropriate behaviors will be targeted? • Identify acknowledgements • Prepare needed materials • Acknowledgements to be used • Materials to track points • List of team members • Rules posted

  34. Red Team

  35. Sample: Classroom Game + + + + + + - + + + - + + + +

  36. Planning for TGBG • Why do you want to use TGBG? • What other changes will you make to classroom management? • Which variations of TGBG will you include? • When will TGBG be scheduled? • How will teams be chosen? • What appropriate behaviors will be targeted? • Identify acknowledgements • Prepare needed materials • Introduce TGBG to the class • Rationale for game • How points are earned (lost) • When points will be traded and what can be earned • When game is and is not in effect

  37. Systems • Whole-class • Small group • Individual student • Acknowledgement contingent only on that student’s behavior • Examples

  38. Systems • Whole-class • Small group • Individual student • Acknowledgement contingent only on that student’s behavior • Advantages • Can individualize • Allows for acknowledgements to be tailored for student • Limitations • Less opportunity for student influence • Can be difficult to implement consistently while teaching

  39. Evaluation: Is what you are doing working? • Collect “baseline” data • Identify target behavior • Measure prior to implementation • Implement new program with fidelity • Compare baseline performance to intervention outcomes

  40. Potential pitfalls—problem solving • Students are not motivated to work for reward • Same group never earns a reward • One or a few students are picked on—as causing others not to benefit • What do you do when there is a substitute?

  41. When Your System doesn’t work • “Basics” are not in place • Rules are known by all and viewed as fair • Classroom is orderly and “works” • Curriculum matches academic level • Needed materials are available • Problems with acknowledgements • Not reinforcing • Schedule of delivery is too thin • Problems with team makeup • Problems with rule enforcement • System is confusing • Schedule is complicated • Competing classroom management systems • Plan for disruptions (e.g., substitutes)

  42. Aligning with SWPBS System • Expectations match school’s • Using school-wide acknowledgement tokens? • If using school-wide tokens • Students can receive rewards in class for earning tokens • Continue collecting tokens for use in the school-wide reward system • Consider use of supplemental rewards for academic achievement/participation

  43. Universal Supports • Foundations • Expectations and rules • Acknowledgement Systems • Strategies for responding to problem behavior

  44. Traditional Strategies Used for Dealing with Problem Behavior • Time out • Demerit or fine • Detention • Writing assignment • Deprivation of some reward

  45. Why Haven’t the Traditional Strategies Been Effective? Practices without the… • Systems • System for defining and teaching expectations and rules • System for responding to errors • Acknowledgement system • Data • Expected behavior defined • Monitor student behavior • Monitor student/teacher interaction

  46. Effective Consequences for Misbehavior Require a System • Applied consistently • Immediate feedback • Pre-determined plan for major, minor, repeat violations • Linked to context Requires a plan developed BEFORE the problem occurs for Major, minor, and repeated problems

  47. Reasonable and Logical Strategies

  48. Reasonable and Logical Strategies