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Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (Clarke/Russell) : Future activities meeting in Virginia Beach. Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …)

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Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues Satellite Validation


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    1. Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (Clarke/Russell) : Future activities meeting in Virginia Beach Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Aerosol Chemistry, gas to particle conversion, size growth and internal mixing Primary – Secondary aerosol Organic Aerosol (Natural, Anthropogenic) Interactions and Cloud Processes Soot/Black Carbon Dust Optical Properties and Radiative effects Cloud Condensation Nuclei

    2. HISTOGRAMS OF MAJOR MASS FRACTIONS FOR P, BB AND NON-PLUMES: INTEX-NA Pollution Plumes (P) and Biomass Burning (BB) Plumes identified for 17% of flight hours based upon 95 percentile exceedences of selected trace gas data. Remainder are regional non-plume data. Gamma determined from observed f(RH) Clarke et al., JGR 2007

    3. The Influence of OC and Ions upon the humidity response of light scattering, Gamma a) Gamma trends with total ions for pollution with weaker trend for BB. b) Gamma reduced by total OC mass fraction with lower values for BB. Most OC was weakly water soluble but not hygroscopic.

    4. Ambient column AOD(550nm) vs. PM 2.5 for INTEX NA Ambient AOD closure over Aeronet sites Only 3 during INTEX NA, need greater effort to make similar network comparisons! Shinozuka et al., 2007

    5. PM2.5 about 55% of ambient AOD and Water contribution about 45% over during INTEX-NA [based upon in-situ f(RH)] As measured Assumes column effective RH = 80% Shinozuka et al., 2007

    6. Ambient SSA is constrained and linked to MAEacc and Size SSA = [ 1 – MAEacc / MSEacc ]^-1 Size, composition and water uptake are related such that the slope of Dry SSA vs. absorption per unit mass (carried in models) shows an expected size dependency that collapses to a simpler dependency under ambient conditions. Provides constraints on models and retrievals. Dry Ambient

    7. The wavelength dependence of absorption and its link to AMS (DeCarlo, Jimenez) organic mass fraction – MIRAGE & IMPEX PRELIMINARY

    8. April 6, 1999 April 10, 1999 Number Mass Pollution Dust VerticalProfiles Subsiding Pollution provides enhanced CNN to stratus clouds and Dust provides soluble iron (limiting nutrient) mixing into MBL

    9. (INTEX-B flights 11-13, DIAL Lidar, E.V. Browell, NASA, LaRC and aerosol vertical profiles), indicate the removal pathway for dust and pollution via subsidence into the marine boundary layer. Understanding mixing, transport, entrainment, cloud condensation nuclei, precipitation scavenging and associated radiative effects are critical to understanding aerosol cycles and impacts and to model paramaterizations of removal flux. WE NEED TO ADDRESS CLOUDS C. McNaughton, A. Clarke, V. Kapustin,S. Howell, J. Zhou, Y. Shinozuka University of Hawaii

    10. Cloud Related Research Issues Indirect effect - CCN and cloud microphysics and cloud radiative properties Warm Cloud Condensation Nuclei – CCN Ice Cloud Ice Nuclei (IN) Contrails Links between CCN and AOD ( PM1?, PM2.5?) Natural vs. Anthropogenic Components Aerosol and Influence on Hydrologic Cycle (Warm Clouds)– Precipitation Formation & Suppression, Amount, Location, absorption and scattering. Dust – Hurricane link etc.?? Are some aerosol fields and clouds coupled? Cloud Scavenging as Sink of Aerosol (model removal term uncertain) in-situ measurements linked to changes in satellite spectral AOD, precipitation, chemistry etc. Cloud Pumping (coupling MBL to FT chemistry) – influence on FT chemistry, key regions, altitudes, transport etc. Cloud Enhanced Chemistry (Aqueous Conversion, Surface Area Effects) ??? Airborne Sampling Issues (which clouds, what measured, new tools) liquid water sampling, droplet sampling (CVI), interstitial aerosol, artifacts

    11. Need more new cloud sampling tools

    12. Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects • Punch Line • In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: • Put the necessary instruments on A/C • Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

    13. CloudSat CALIPSO GLORY Motivation: Simultaneous satellite and airborne aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds Nikolaeva et al., JQSRT, 2005 Cloud Halo – enhanced aerosol scatter near cloud Cloud edge enhanced radiance

    14. 1) Aerosol direct effect: use of airborne sensors - support satellite cloud screening (possible cloud contamination) - 3-D effect of clouds on adjacent clear sky retrievals (much more easily done over-ocean; note that this is different from "classic" cloud contamination, by which a pixel contains an un-resolved cloud) - measure the spatial extent and properties of cloud halos - verify TOA and vertically resolved satellite-derived energy "fluxes" - validate Glory to be launched 2008 - check the consistency of AERONET retrievals of aerosol microphysics 2) Aerosol indirect effect: use of airborne sensors - support cloud screening (ensure spatial correspondence of cloudy and clear elements) - below-cloud and cloud-adjacent aerosol/CCN spectra/chemistry - validate satellite cloud properties (no AERONET-like network, therefore airborne validation may be relatively more important)

    15. Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects • Punch Line • In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: • Put the necessary instruments on A/C • Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

    16. Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY POLDER/Parasol MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra B200 DC-8 C-130 J31

    17. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectrafrom OMI on Aura, MODIS on Aqua, & AATS Sunphotometer on J-31 17 Mar 2006INTEX-B UV Preliminary Livingston, Redemann, Torres, …

    18. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectrafrom OMI on Aura, MODIS on Aqua, & AATS Sunphotometer on J-31 17 Mar 2006INTEX-B Preliminary Livingston, Redemann, Veefkind, Viehelman

    19. Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects • Punch Line • In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: • Put the necessary instruments on A/C • Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

    20. Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY POLDER/Parasol MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra B200 DC-8 C-130 J31

    21. Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo Spectra Derived from simultaneous measurements of Radiative flux and aerosol optical depth  UV-Vis-SWIR Covers l range of OMI-UV, OMI-MW, MISR, MODIS, CALIPSO, HSRL, Glory ASP, RSP, POLDER, … Coalbedo (1-SSA) varies by factor 4, l = 350-900 nm Jetstream 31 (J31) Aerosol Amount, AOD(499 nm) 12 April 2001, ACE-Asia Bergstrom et al., JGR, 2004 P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee

    22. Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY POLDER/Parasol MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra B200 DC-8 C-130 P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee J31

    23. Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects • Punch Line • In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: • Put the necessary instruments on A/C • Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

    24. Comparison of OMI, AATS, & AERONET AOD at T0 (Mexico City), 19 Mar 2006 Surface albedo effect? AERONET, T0 AATS-14, T0 P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee

    25. Jetstream 31 (J31) AATS-14 SSFR CAR POS RSP NavMet Altitude [km] Aerosol Optical Depth l [mm] Aerosol Extinction [km-1] Specially modified by NASAto measure atmospheric constituents and surfaces via their effect on the solar energy that drives climate Early Results from INTEX-B (2006) • Preparing for Glory, RSP measured polarized surface reflectance & aerosols over ocean & Mexico City [Cairns et al.] • AATS is testing aerosol retrievals by OMI, MODIS & MISR on Aura, Aqua & Terra, and by HSRLidar on B200, preparing for AEGIS[Redemann, Livingston, Russell, Torres, Remer, Martins, Kahn, Hostettler, Ferrare, Clarke et al.] P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee

    26. Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY POLDER/Parasol MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra B200 DC-8 C-130 P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee J31

    27. Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects • Punch Line • In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: • Put the necessary instruments on A/C • Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

    28. Climate Change Science in INTEX-A/ICARTT Measurements of Aerosol Effects on the Solar Energy that Drives Climate Forcing Efficiency [W m-2] Solar energy [W m-2] Slope =Aerosol Radiative Forcing Efficiency Case 2,21 Jul2004 Case Jetstream 31 (J31) Aerosol Amount, AOD(499 nm) Redemann et al., JGR, accepted 2006 • Scientific Conclusions • The gradients (spatial variations) in AOD that occur frequently off the US East coast provide a natural laboratory for studying effects of aerosol particles on solar energy, and hence on climate. • For the average aerosol optical depth of ~0.5 in the 10 cases shown above, aerosols on average reduced the incident visible solar radiation energy flux by (near midday) 40 W m-2 (= 0.5 x -80 W m-2; see right frame above); demonstrating significant regional aerosol climate forcing. P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee

    29. Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List) Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect) Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …) Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects • Punch Line • In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: • Put the necessary instruments on A/C • Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

    30. OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY POLDER/Parasol MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra B200 DC-8 C-130 AATS-14 SSFR CAR POS RSP NavMet J31 J31: Specially modified by NASAto measure atmospheric constituents and surfaces via their effect on the solar energy that drives climate Livingston/Russell, Aura ST, Boulder, Sep 2006

    31. End of PresentationRemaining Slides are Backup Livingston/Russell, Aura ST, Boulder, Sep 2006

    32. 1) Aerosol direct effect: use of airborne sensors - support satellite cloud screening (possible cloud contamination) - 3-D effect of clouds on adjacent clear sky retrievals (much more easily done over-ocean; note that this is different from "classic" cloud contamination, by which a pixel contains an un-resolved cloud) - measure the spatial extent and properties of cloud halos - verify TOA and vertically resolved satellite-derived energy "fluxes" - validate Glory to be launched 2008 - check the consistency of AERONET retrievals of aerosol microphysics 2) Aerosol indirect effect: use of airborne sensors - support cloud screening (ensure spatial correspondence of cloudy and clear elements) - below-cloud and cloud-adjacent aerosol/CCN spectra/chemistry - validate satellite cloud properties (no AERONET-like network, therefore airborne validation may be relatively more important)

    33. CloudSat CALIPSO GLORY Motivation: Simultaneous satellite and airborne aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds Nikolaeva et al., JQSRT, 2005 Halo effect – enhances aerosol scatter near cloud Cloud edge enhanced radiance

    34. M. Schoeberl Thoughts on Satellites to 2010 Aura should be still flying with OMI aerosol information Aqua will probably still be going with MODIS Terra - not so sure - that would remove MISR CALIPSO will probably be dead Glory with APS will be flying in the A-trainMaring: will need science/cal/val missions Cloudsat will probably be working PARASOL will probably be dead or out of the A-train due to lack of fuel. NPP will be up with VIIRS and OMPS nadir - but OMPS aerosol capability is uncertain.

    35. Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY POLDER/Parasol MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra B200 DC-8 C-130 J31

    36. Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat POLDER/Parasol MODIS/Aqua MISR, MODIS/Terra B200 DC-8 C-130 J31 • Current: Models of:- Chem & Trans- Rad Effects • Potential: GLORY