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Essential Standard 4.00. Understanding the role of finance in business. Objective 4.01. Understand financial management. Topics. Financial planning Business budgets Financial records and statements Financial performance ratios. Financial planning. Financial Planning.

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essential standard 4 00

Essential Standard 4.00

Understanding the role of finance in business.

objective 4 01

Objective 4.01

Understand financial management.

  • Financial planning
  • Business budgets
  • Financial records and statements
  • Financial performance ratios
financial planning1
Financial Planning

Why should a business do financial planning?

  • Reduces financial uncertainties
  • Increases control of financial activities
  • Provides a ‘map of finances’ for business
  • Makes it easier to ‘stick’ to financial processes and goals.
financial planning continued
Financial Planning continued

Phases of business

  • Start-up
    • Financial planning includes determining the amount of money needed to start and operate the business until a profit is made. Also the major sales and expenses are determined.
  • Operation
    • Financial planning includes determining whether they are making enough money to operate. The basic formula used is Revenue – Expenses = Profit or Loss.
  • Expansion
    • Financial planning includes determining whether enough money is made to cover growth opportunities.
business budgets1
Business Budgets

Types of business budgets:

  • Start-up budget used by a new business or during expansion of a business until profits are made.
  • Operating budget used for ongoing business operations for a specific period.
  • Cash budget used to estimate cash flow in and out of a business.
business budgets continued
Business Budgets continued

Steps for preparing a business budget:

  • Prepare a list of income and expense items.
  • Gather accurate information from business records.
  • Create the budget.
  • Clearly communicate the budget to key employees in order to make sound business decisions.
what is income
What is income?
  • Money received for goods or services
  • Net Sales
  • Revenue
  • Receipts
  • Earnings
  • Interest
what is expense
What is expense?
  • Cost or charge incurred; a payment of money
  • Salaries Advertising
  • Utilities Telephone
  • Rent Repairs/Maintenance
  • Insurance Taxes

SAMPLE Operating Budget

July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005


Membership dues - 35 @ $25.00 $875.00

Fund-raiser $100.00

Contest entry award $25.00

Aluminum can sales $27.00

T-shirt sales $468.00

Parties $200.00

Total Income $1,695.00


Parties $710.00

Intramurals $15.00

Gifts $55.00

Refreshments $100.00

National/regional dues -35 @$5.00 $175.00

Fund-raiser $44.00

T-shirts $450.00

Picnic $99.00

Office supplies/duplicating $28.00

State & County sales tax $19.00

Total Expenses $1,695.00


financial records and statements1
Financial Records and Statements
  • What is the purpose of financial records?

Financial records provide specific information about business activities that is used to analyze the financial performance of a business.

financial records and statements2
Financial Records and Statements
  • Financial records used by businesses:
    • Asset records – buildings and equipment owned by the business, their original and current value, and the amount owed if money is borrowed to purchase the assets
    • Depreciation records – identify the amount assets have decreased in value due to their age and use
    • Inventory records – identify the type and number of products on hand for sale; help determine # products sold, damaged or lost and the current value of that inventory
financial records and statements3
Financial Records and Statements
  • Records of accounts – identify all purchases and sales made using credit
    • Accounts payable record identifies the companies from which credit purchases were made and the amount purchased, paid and owed.
    • Accounts receivable record identifies customers that made purchases using credit and the status of each account
  • Cash records – list all cash received and spent by the business
financial records and statements4
Financial Records and Statements
  • Payroll records – contain information on all employees of the company, their compensation and benefits.
  • Tax records – show all taxes collected, owed and paid. As a part of payroll, employers must withhold a certain percentage of employees’ salaries and wages for federal income tax. The company also makes payments for Social Security and Medicare and, in some cases, for unemployment compensation insurance. Businesses may have to pay several types of taxes on their income and value of their assets.
what are assets
What are assets?
  • Assets are things that a business (or person) owns
  • Examples: cash, inventory, real estate, equipment, accounts receivable
what are liabilities
What are liabilities?
  • Liabilities are things that a business (or person) owes
  • Examples: debt, accounts payable, loans
what is owner s equity
What is owner’s equity?
  • Owner’s equity is the value of the owners’ investment in the business
  • Value of business after liabilities are subtracted from assets
financial records and statements continued
Financial Records and Statements continued
  • What are financial statements?

Financial statements provide a picture of the financial performance of a business

financial records and statements continued1
Financial Records and Statements continued
  • What is the difference between a balance sheet and an income statement?
  • Balance sheet includes assets, liabilities and owner’s equity
  • Income statement includes sales, expenses and net profit/net loss
revenue vs expenses
Revenue vs. Expenses
  • Revenue is all income received by the business during the period. Sources of income include the sale of products and services, plus interest earned from investments.
  • Expenses are all the costs incurred by the business during the period. Expenses include operations, purchase of equipment, supplies, inventory, payroll and taxes.
revenue vs expenses1
Revenue vs. Expenses
  • The business has net income when revenue is greater than expenses.
  • The business has net loss when expenses are greater than revenue.
financial performance ratios1
Financial Performance Ratios
  • Financial performance ratiosare comparisons using a company’s financial data to determine how well a business is performing.
  • The four main types of financial ratios:
    • Current ratio
    • Debt to equity ratio
    • Return on equity ratio
    • Net income ratio
financial performance ratios continued
Financial Performance Ratios continued
  • Current ratio
    • Equals current assets/current liabilities
    • Represents assets that the business could convert into cash in < 1 year compared to liabilities that it must pay in < 1 year; shows ability of company to pay debts as they become due. Ideally, this ratio should be over 1.0.
    • Normally, the higher the ratio, the more favorable it is for the company.
financial performance ratios continued1
Financial Performance Ratios continued
  • Debit to equity ratio
    • Equals total liabilities/owner’s equity
    • Shows how much the business relies on money borrowed externally which will have to be paid back versus money provided by the owners. Ideally, this ratio should be less than 2.0.
    • Normally, the lower this ratio, the more favorable it is for the company.
    • Too much debt puts a business at risk because it may have trouble meeting its obligations to its lenders.
current ratio and debt to equity ratio
Current Ratio and Debt to Equity Ratio
  • Current Ratio

Current assets are $1,200,000 and total current liabilities are $600,000.

Calculate current ratio.


Current Ratio = 1,200,000 / 600,000

= 2


1200,000 : 600,000

2 : 1

  • Debt to Equity Ratio

Required: Calculate debt to equity ratio.


External Equities / Internal Equities

= 1,200,000 / 1,800,000

= 0.66 or 4 : 6

financial performance ratios continued2
Financial Performance Ratios continued
  • Return on equity ratio
    • Equals net profit/owner’s equity
    • Indicates the rate of return the owners/stockholders are receiving on their investments. There is not an ideal ratio; however, it is used to compare with other types of investments to see if there may be another investment that is more desirable.
    • Normally, the higher the ratio, the more favorable it is for the company.
financial performance ratios continued3
Financial Performance Ratios continued
  • Net income ratio
    • Equals total sales/net income
    • Shows the amount of sales needed for each dollar of net income. While there is not an ideal ratio, managers use this number to compare to past periods to determine how changes in sales affect net income.
    • Normally, the lower the ratio, the more favorable it is for the company, as it takes less in sales to generate net income.
return on equity ratio and net income ratio
Return on Equity Ratio and Net Income Ratio
  • Return on Equity Ratio

Return on equity or ROE can be calculated as,

Calculate return on equity share capital from the following information:

Equity share capital ($1): $1,000,000; 9% Preference share capital: $500,000; Taxation rate: 50% of net profit; Net profit before tax: $400,000.


Return on Equity Capital (ROEC) ratio = [(400,000 − 200,000 − 45,000) / 1,000,000 )× 100]

= 15.5%

  • Net Income Ratio


Net Profit Ratio = (Net profit / Net sales) × 100


Total sales = $520,000; Sales returns = $ 20,000;  Net profit $40,000

Calculate net profit ratio.


Net sales = (520,000 – 20,000) = 500,000

Net Profit Ratio = [(40,000 / 500,000) × 100]

= 8%

gross vs net
  • Gross means amount before any expenses are deducted
  • Net means amount after expenses are deducted
  • Discrepancies are differences between actual and budgeted performance.
  • Also know as a variance