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Cell Structure and function

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  1. Cell Structure and function

  2. Eukaryotic Cell Structure What are the major cell structures? What are their functions?

  3. www.cellsalive.comwww.learngenetics.utah (cell link). Reinforce your knowledge of organelles by playing the games and completing the activities at the websites posted

  4. In the human body, organs perform specialized jobs. For example, the heart transports blood. In cells, tiny ___________ carry out specialized jobs. • tissues • Organ systems • organelles • Organ systems 20

  5. What is the function of the mitochondria? • Make lipids • Make proteins • Control the cell • Make energy

  6. What is the function of ribosomeS? • Make lipids • Make proteins • Control the cell • Package and transport materials

  7. Which of the following organelles are found only in plant cells? • Mitochondria • Chloroplast • Golgi apparatus • Lysosomes

  8. Which of the following cells do not have nuclei? • Plant • Animal • Eukaryote • Prokaryote

  9. Where is dna located in a eukaryotic cell? • Mitochondria • Nucleus • Cytoplasm • Golgi Apparatus

  10. All cells have • Nucleus • Endoplasmic reticulum • Cell Wall • Cell Membrane

  11. How well do you know the organelles and their functions? • I can recall all of the organelles, their functions, where they are in the cell and how they work together. • I can recall all of the organelles but am unclear on how some of them work. • I remember the names of many organelles but don’t know their functions. • I only remember a few organelles.

  12. Describe the differences, similarities and evolutionary links between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  13. Describe the differences, similarities and evolutionary links between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  14. Describe the differences, similarities and evolutionary links between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. List four things that are different between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Put these differences in order from most important to least important.

  15. What is a membrane bound structure that contains genetic material and controls many of the cell’s activities? • Prokaryote • Eukaryote • Nucleus • Cell membrane

  16. Which of the following cells do not contain a nucleus? • Animal cell • Plant cell • Bacterial cell

  17. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes • have a nucleus • have DNA • have membrane bound organelles • are the same size

  18. True or false? Eukaryotes are cells that do not have a nucleus. • True • False

  19. Which type of eukaryotes are often single celled (unicellular)? • bacteria • protists • Fungi like yeasts & molds • Mushroom-bearing fungi • Plants like trees • Animals like brine shrimp or small insects

  20. How well do you know the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? • I can recall and explain all of the major differences and similarities. • I can list all of the major differences and similarities. • I only know a few major differences or similarities. • I don’t remember the differences between these two types of cells.

  21. Prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles, including nuclei, in their cells. Eukaryote cells contain membrane bound organelles in the cells Prokaryoteeukaryote Naked DNA DNA in membrane bound nucleus Ribosomes ribosomes Cytoplasm cytoplasm (cytosol) Cytoskeleton cytoskeleton Plasma membrane plasma membrane Cell wall (some) Cell wall (some protists, all plants, & fungi) Flagella & cilia (some) flagella & cilia (some) All: golgi, smooth & rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, vacuoles, lysosomes or peroxisomes, mitochondria some: chloroplasts

  22. Animals and plants are always multicellular with specialized (they look different & function differently) cells. Most protists are unicellular organisms, although some are colonial (cells are clumped together but do not depend on each other or do specialized jobs) Cells in a leaf cells in gut Yeasts, molds (fungi) mushroom protists

  23. Which type of eukaryotes are often single celled (unicellular)? • bacteria • protists • Fungi like yeasts & molds • Mushroom-bearing fungi • Plants like trees • Animals like brine shrimp or small insects 10

  24. Note these drawings of animal and plant cells. Which does NOT have a cell wall outside it’s plasma membrane? Fungi also have cell walls; so do some protists and some bacteria. Cells walls are made of cellulose in plants, chitin in fungi, peptidoglycan in eubacteria. Cell walls extra support & extra protection for cells.

  25. Cell walls protect cells from bursting and provide them support against pressure (so they don’t get crushed). Which kingdom (the only one) NEVER has cell walls? • Animal • Archaebacteria • Eubacteria • Fungi • Protists • plants

  26. The job of a cell wall is to: • Protect and provide support • Allow cells to photosynthesize • Surround the cytoplasm

  27. Cell walls in plants are made out of? • chitin • cellulose • Phospholipid bilayers • Peptidoglycan • proteins

  28. Which structure is found in (specific to)a plant cell,but not an animal cell. • Chloroplasts • lysosomes • mitochondria • Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) • Smooth ER (SER) • Cell walls 20

  29. Which is the organelle that holds thecells DNA (its genome) and is the control center of the cell? • centriole • mitochondria • nucleolus • Nucleus • cytoplasm 20

  30. What molecules inside the nucleus allow it to serve as the cell’s control center? • DNA • carbohydrates • proteins • Lipids • RNA 20

  31. When DNA in the nucleus is only visible as grains or tangled strands, it is called: • chromosomes • chromatin • nucleolus • Nuclear pores 20

  32. When DNA is wrapped around _________called histones, it is called chromatin. When chromatin is packed tightly enough to be visible, it is called a chromosome. • carbohydrates • lipids • proteins • Nucleic acids 20

  33. When you view eukaryotic cells vialight microscopy, you see a small dark, denseregion inside the nucleus. It is called the: • ribosome • nucleolus • nucleoplasm • Nuclear membrane • Nuclear pore 20

  34. These organelles are assembled in nucleoli. • golgi • ribosomes • vacuoles • lysosomes 15

  35. The nuclear envelope is made of a double layer of ___________ surrounding the nucleus. • proteins • Nucleic acids • carbohydrates • phospholipids 20

  36. The structure composed of a networkof protein filaments whose job is supporting the cell’s shape, allowing cell movement, &moving organelles inside the cell is the: • Cell membrane • Cell wall • Cytoskeleton • Cilium, flagellum 20

  37. Match the cytoskeletal protein filamentsto their correct functions: • Microtubules, form flagella, cilia & centrioles, while actin microfilaments allow cells to change shape like during cytokinesis or amoeba’s extending pseudopodia • Actin microfilaments, form flagella, cilia & centrioles • Microtubules, attach to cell membranes to allow cells to move with pseudopodia (false feet) 20

  38. What is the difference between Roughendoplasmic reticulum (RER) and SER? • SER is used to transport material from place to place inside the cell • RER is used to transport material from place to place inside the cell • SER is a tube made of cell membrane • Ribosomes attached to RER inject proteins into it, then enzymes modify the proteins. 30

  39. Which is true of peroxisomes & lysosomes? • Contain enzymes to make lipids • Break down & recycle old cell structures & contain hydrolytic enzymes that digest lipids, carbohydrates & proteins • Modify proteins • Store genetic information 30

  40. Ribosomes • Use light energy to make carbohydrates • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membrane—looks like a stack of pancakes. • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins • Are membrane sacs used for storage • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles. 30

  41. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): • Use light energy to make carbohydrates • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membrane—looks like a stack of pancakes. • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food • Are membrane tubes whose enzymes construct components of membranes (SER) or modify proteins (RER) • Are membrane sacs used for storage • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions • Are membrane sacs filled w/ digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles. 30

  42. Golgi apparatus: • Use light energy to make carbohydrates • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to final destinations—looks like a stack of pancakes. • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins • Are membrane sacs used for storage • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles. 30

  43. Lysosomes: • Use light energy to make carbohydrates • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membrane—looks like a stack of pancakes. • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins • Are membrane sacs used for storage • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles. 30

  44. Vacuoles: • Use light energy to make carbohydrates • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membrane—looks like a stack of pancakes. • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins • Are membrane sacs used for storage • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles. 30

  45. Chloroplasts: • Use light energy to make carbohydrates • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to final destinations—looks like a stack of pancakes. • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins • Are membrane sacs used for storage • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles. 30

  46. Mitochondria: • Use light energy to make carbohydrates • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to final destinations—looks like a stack of pancakes. • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins • Are membrane sacs used for storage • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles. 20

  47. What cells contain chloroplasts, organelles that carry out photosynthesis? • autotrophic bacteria • Plants & plant like protists • Animals & animal like protists • Fungi & fungal like protists 20

  48. True or False. Mitochondria & chloroplasts are surrounded by a singlecell membrane. • true • false 15

  49. What two organelles contain theirown genetic information in the form of smallcircular DNA molecules called plasmids? • Golgi, nucleoi • Mitochondria, chloroplasts • RER, SER • Centrioles, flagella 15