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Cell Structure and Function. Cell Theory. All living organisms are made of cells . Cells are small aqueous solution (cytoplasm) organelles ( subcellular structures) “ subunit of life !” Cells are of different size and shape

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cell theory
Cell Theory
  • All living organisms are made of cells.
  • Cells are small
  • aqueous solution (cytoplasm)
  • organelles (subcellularstructures) “subunit of life!”
  • Cells are of different size and shape
  • Size and shape can be related to its specific function.
  • Called specialized Cells

What’s inside the cell?

Are there different types of cells?

from prokaryote to eukaryote
From Prokaryote to Eukaryote
  • All living thingscomefrom a single cell born 3,500 million years ago (mya)
    • Simple organic molecules likely formed billions of years ago
  • A prokaryote “ate” another prokaryote
  • The inner prokaryote helped the outer prokaryote
  • They lived happily ever after

Primordial Cell

How did organelles get into simple cells?

Endosymbiotic Theory

prokaryotic cells examples
Prokaryotic CellsExamples?
  • “Before membrane or nucleus”
  • NO Nucleus
  • Only ribosomes, DNA, and cytoplasm inside
  • Extremely Simple


eukaryotic cells

“TRUE membrane or nucleus”

  • Nucleus and membrane bound organelles PRESENT
  • DNA in nucleus
  • Extremely COMPLEX
Eukaryotic Cells


Plants, animals, and Fungi

unicellular vs multicellular organisms
Unicellular vs. Multicellular Organisms
  • Why unicellular?

• Why multicellular?

  • Simplicity
  • Quick Reproduction (Asexual)
  • No need for circulatory system
  • Complex
  • Specialized
  • Sexual Reproduction= genetic differences
  • Need a circulatory system to get nutrients
why don t we have enormous unicellular organisms wondering around walmart
Why don’t we have enormous unicellular organisms wondering around Walmart?
  • It takes to long to get nutrients throughout the cell
  • Let’s see how the surface to volume ratio affects nutrient supply to the cell.
outside covers plasma cell membrane cell wall
Outside CoversPlasma/cell MembraneCell Wall
  • Flexible membrane
  • Phospholipidbilayer
  • Controls what goes in and comes out
  • All Cells!
  • Rigid structure made of cellulose (carbohydrate) holds plants up
  • Extra Protection
  • Plant and bacterial cells (no animals)
inner structures nuclear envelope nucleus nucleolus

The outside covering of the nucleus

  • Controls all cell activities
  • Hold all genetic information (DNA)
  • ”Brain of the cell”
  • Inside the nucleus
  • makes ribosomes and nucleic acids for the nucleus
Inner structuresNuclear EnvelopeNucleusNucleolus

Inner Structures

  • Make proteins!
    • Assembled by their instructions in DNA
  • “Ribs” are delicious protein

Inner Structures

  • Clear jelly-like fluid inside of a cell.
  • Holds organelles in place
  • Multiple chemical reactions take place here.
  • Kept out of

nucleus by

nuclear envelope.

endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Folded membrane in the cytoplasm
  • Has large surface area for more chemical reactions.
  • Creates containment vesicles
  • Studded with ribosomes
  • Creates Proteins

Smooth ER

Rough ER

golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
  • Closely stacked, flattened membrane sacs
  • Receive newly made proteins and lipids from the ER
  • sendsboth to the plasma membrane and other organelles throughout the cell.
  • Stores food, enzymes, and other materials needed by a cell.
    • A small percentage of vacuoles store waste products.
    • Vacuoles in plants cells are huge!
      • Usually only one.
    • Animal cells can have many small vacuoles.
  • Contain digestive enzymes.
  • Digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria
  • Their membrane prevents harmful enzymes from pouring into the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • “Everyone wants to get rid of lyce”
  • food molecules are broken down (glucose) to produce energy.
    • Shaped like tiny sausages.
    • Have their own DNA/Ribosomes
    • Inner membrane forms long, narrow folds called cristae.
  • Photosynthesis takes place here
  • Transforms light energy into chemicals to produce food
  • In plants only!

Contain Chlorophyll

  • greenpigment that traps light energy
  • gives plants their green color.
  • In the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast.
  • **What gives plants their green color**
  • Thick part of the cell membrane where spindles attach
  • Helps in cell reproduction
  • Helps in cell division
structures for support cytoskeleton made of
Structures for SupportCytoskeletonmade of…
  • provide support for organelles and helps the cell maintain its shape.
    • Microtubules: Thin, hollow cylinders of protein.
    • Microfilaments: Thin, solid protein fibers.
structures for movement
Structures for Movement
  • “Hair-like projections” that beat together to create movement
  • whip-like tail for motion
    • major method of locomotion in unicellular organisms.