TTHM – HAA5 Sampling Procedures. Sampling for TTHM – HAA5. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate recommended sampling techniques. This presentation includes recommendations for: supplies needed sample tap selection collection; and shipping. Sampling for TTHM – HAA5.
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The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate recommended sampling techniques. This presentation includes recommendations for:
We know and recognize that there are numerous techniques and methods for collecting drinking water samples. The idea of this presentation is to demonstrate the general method used while providing some helpful suggestions for sample collection, whether you are an owner, operator, or trainee. This presentation is in no way to be considered a substitute for the federal Safe Drinking Water Act and amendments.
Chlorine and other chemical disinfectants have been
Widely used by public water systems as a principal
barrier to microbial contaminants in drinking water.
Disinfection byproducts, or DBPs, are formed when
disinfectants interact with organic and inorganic
materials in source waters.
The levels of DBPs in finished water is also dependant on the pH, temperature, and age of the water in the distribution system. Drinking water can vary significantly from one point in a distribution system to another.
Unfortunately, disinfection byproducts have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals and have been linked to various kinds of cancer in humans.
Because of the combined weight of evidence from health data and studies, and in consideration of the large number of people exposed to DBPs (approximately 254 million Americans), EPA established DBP control measures for public water systems.
The DBP are regulated through the Stage 1 and Stage 2 Disinfectants and
Disinfection Byproducts Rules. The Stage 1 DBP rule applies to water systems that add a chemical disinfectant. The Stage 2 MDBP Rule, finalized in December 2005, makes incremental changes to the Stage 1 Rule for additional protection of public health.
The Stage 2 DBPR is designed to protect public health by supplementing existing drinking water regulations with risk-targeted monitoring and compliance determinations for DBP’s maximum contaminant levels, or MCLs.
Under the Stage 2 DBPR, systems will conduct an evaluation of their distribution system to identify the locations with high disinfection byproduct concentrations. These locations will then be used by the systems as the sampling sites for DBP rule compliance monitoring.
In determining compliance, the maximum contaminant levels for two groups of disinfection byproducts (total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5)) will be calculated. Under stage 1 DBP Rule, compliance is based on a running average of the samples in the distribution system- an average of all samples collected.
Under stage 2 DBP Rule, compliance is based on a running annual average at each monitoring location.
Be sure to check with
your state or tribal
drinking water program office for additional guidelines, rules and/or sample requirements since they may be more stringent than those required by the federal Safe Drinking Water Act.
Before you begin sampling, it is important to have all of your supplies on hand. Here is a list of the suggested supplies you may need:
Cooler for shipping and storage of your sample
while in transit between collection point and lab.
Bagged Ice for your shipping cooler.
PVC or unsupported Neoprene gloves which are necessary to keep your hands safe from sample container preservative chemicals.
Safety Goggles which are necessary to keep your hands and eyes safe from sample container preservative chemicals.
Lab slips, labels, and markers for sample container
Additional Recommended Items are:
Paper towels for drying off the outside of your sample
container after sampling.
Plastic storage baggies for ice and
For this sampling Method, The laboratory normally sends either 2- 40 or 2- 60 milliliter glass vial containers. Some labs may provide ampules with acid for pH adjustment which is not covered in this presentation.
Obtain specific instructions from the laboratory at the time empty containers are received.
As a general rule, proper washing of hands is highly recommended for the sample collector.
Also, food, drink, and even 2nd hand cigarette smoke should never come into contact with the sample or its containers. These foreign objects have been suspected of causing false results in samples, so be sure to practice good clean sample collection procedures.
Do not sample with any containers that appear to have been tampered with since this may cause an undesirable sample result.
The laboratory that supplies the sampling containers may provide instruction with the kit for the type of monitoring being performed. Be sure to refer to those instructions when provided.
IMPORTANT: The laboratory supplying the sample containers may send trip blanks, sometimes called field reagent blanks, along with the sample containers. Trip blanks consist of sample containers filled at the laboratory, that must remain sealed and must be shipped back to the lab . This is done to check if samples were contaminated during shipment.
Safety goggles and
gloves must be worn.
Wash hands before and after sampling.
Sample containers may contain liquid preservatives. Liquid preservatives will cause burns. If it comes into contact with the skin or eyes, flush with liberal amounts of water and seek immediate medical attention.
Select a state approved sampling location. Normally, this type of sample is collected at various locations throughout the distribution system.
If possible, use a non-swivel faucet and remove all attachments, including any aerators, strainers and hoses. It is normally recommended not to take a sample at that location if all attachments cannot be removed because they may alter the sample results.
Turn on the water tap and run the water until the temperature has stabilized (use a thermometer if possible) This typically takes 2 to 3 minutes. Then reduce the flow so that the stream is approximately ¼ inch in diameter.Do not change the flow rate until after sampling is completed.
While the water is running for those
2-3 minutes, completely fill out the
labels and lab slip. Be sure to clearly
identify the system information, like
the public water system identification
number, exact sample location, date and time of collection, and the sampler’s name.
If the sample collection point has a specific coded identification, include it on the label and sample submission form. Be sure to attach the label prior to sampling. A wet sample container may not allow the label to properly adhere.
Remove the cap from the vial, keeping the vial upright to prevent spilling any preservatives. Do not put the cap face down or put it in your pocket. Do not allow the inside of the cap or the bottle threads to be touched by any object .
Hold the vial at an angle pointing away from your face and carefully fill it until it is completely full. Be careful not to rinse out the preservatives. If acid has been added to the vial by the laboratory, it will mix rapidly with the water and may splatter a bit.
Carefully complete filling the vial by putting water inside the cap and transferring it one drop at a time to the vial until completely full.
Screw the cap on the bottle being sure not to overtighten the cap.
Invert the bottle 2 or 3 times and check for air bubbles. If any are present, add additional water- just a drop or 2- seal and check again.
Remember that each “sample” consists of 2 to 3 filled vials. Repeat the previous steps to fill additional vials for each sample.
Complete all necessary forms supplied by the laboratory with the appropriate information. In many states, the same form that is filled out here will be used to report the analytical results. Also, you may need to complete a chain of custody form, if required.
Place the samples in a cooler. The trip blanks should still be in the cooler. Keep the samples at 2 degrees to 6 degrees Celsius ( 36 degrees to 43 degrees Fahrenheit) and keep them away form direct light or gasoline and solvent vapors. Pack the samples in a cooler with Ice. As a tip, it might be a good idea to bag up the sample and the ice separately in the cooler. This will help prevent leakage or contamination of the sample from the ice.
Deliver the samples to the laboratory or ship the samples by an overnight courier This will ensure prompt testing for the most accurate results. It is recommended that all samples be received by the laboratory within 7 days.
If the laboratory has any additional recommendations or requirements, they should be read and followed closely.
If you have any additional questions, please contact your state or tribal drinking water program office for assistance.
Following the proper drinking water sample collection procedures can lead to peace of mind, knowing that the test results truly represent the quality of water your customers are drinking. After all, isn’t our goal to ensure . . .
“Water Safe to Drink”