History of Forensic Science. Forensic Science. Application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. Yi Yu Ji (A collection of criminal cases).
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Forensic Science Application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system
Yi Yu Ji (A collection of criminal cases) • The first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve (separate) criminal cases • 1235: Sung Tzu solved a murder by instructing all suspects to bring their sickles to one location. Flies, attracted by the smell of blood, eventually gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. • The book also offered advice on how to distinguish between a drowning (water in the lungs) and strangulation (broken neck cartilage). • Noticed no ashes in corpse, used pigs and set up experiment
1670 First powerful microscope created by Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
1784 Lancaster, England, John Toms was tried and convicted for murdering Edward Culshaw with a pistol. When the dead body of Culshaw was examined, a pistol wad (crushed paper used to secure powder and balls in the muzzle) found in his head wound matched perfectly with a torn newspaper found in Toms' pocket.
Father of toxicology • 1814: Scientific paper on poison published by Matthieu Orfila of Spain • the first person to systematise the study and classification of toxic substances when he found traces of poison in the liver of a dead dog. • Father of Forensic Toxicology
Identification of remains (odontology and anthropometry) • 1879: System of measuring people by body measurements developed by Alphonse Bertillon of France • Known as Father of Criminal Identification • Most accurate until 1900s when fingerprints are used
1850s-60s Crime photography was established Used to record criminals and crime scenes
Francis Henry Galton • Father of forensic fingerprint identification • 1892: Published Fingerprints, which is used in the present day
Calvin Goddard • 1889: Bullets were matched to gun they were fired from, the start of ballistics
Sherlock Holmes Fictional character Author: Scottish author and physician Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Used forensics to solve crimes before police did Brought forensics to public
Fingerprinting (cont’d) • 1902: First person was convicted on fingerprint evidence • 1903: NYC police began fingerprint files of arrested persons
Who is the main suspect (s)? Someone was attacked yesterday. There was a 7.7cm sized bruise on the victim’s face. There were 24cm sized shoe prints spaced 38cm apart. Who is your main suspect?
1905 Theodore Roosevelt establishes FBI
Albert S. Osborn 1910 Established process for questioning authenticity of documents Wrote Questioned Documents Still used today
Hans Gross 1893 Publishes “Criminal Investigation” Discusses all parts of criminalistics Start of all forensic journals
1910 – Edmond Locard Med and law school background Convinced police department in england to give him two assistant and attic for forensic evidence analysis Started 1st forensics lab Later started 1st forensic university
Locard’s exchange principle When 2 objects come in contact with each other, a cross-transfer of materials occurs.
Leone Lattes 1915 Discovered the blood group of a dried blood stain
1923 First crime lab established in conjunction with LA police by August Vollmer
1930 FBI sets up national fingerprint file in US
1950 American Academy of Forensic Science (AAFS) founded in Chicago Also introduction of computer chromatography, electrophoresis, and spectrophotometry
1974 Electron microscopy of gunshot residue starts
1977 Automated Fingerprint Identification System of computer scans introduced in FBI
Walter C. McCrone Became the premier microscopist in forensics career Taught thousands his analytical study method
1981 • FBI opens “Forensic Science Research and Training Center” • Research new methods • Train personnel
1984 Sir Alec Jeffreys develops DNA profiling tests 1986 – DNA used to convict Colin Pitchfork of 2 murders and establish innocence of another suspect.
1986 FBI starts databases on DNA, fingerprints, bullets, and shell casing
More emphasis on the evidence Constitutional right to counsel has limited confessions Satellites allow for sharing of information but NO national systems of forensics labs. Increase in drug crimes
1990s • Increase in DNA technology • Increase in drug analysis outways DNA cases • FBI has largest crime lab in the world • Drug Enforcement Administration labs • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms • US Postal Inspection Service
Crime Labs Some states have state crime labs and work with local crime labs to share info and complete tests NYC has the largest crime lab in the state England and Canada have federal system of regional labs, that charge for services
Parts to a Crime Lab • Physical Science Unit • Examine trace evidence back at lab, compare crime scene evidence, chemists, physicists, geologists
2. Biology Unit DNA profiling, compare wood and plants
3. Firearms Unit Detect residue, casings, shells, and firearms
4. Document Examination Unit Determine authenticity of documents
5. Photography Unit Photograph scene, use infrared, UV, x-rays
6. Toxicology Unit Bodily fluids and organs for drugs and poisons
7. Latent Fingerprint Unit Process and examine evidence of fingerprints
8. Polygraph Unit Determine authenticity of witness testimony
9. Voiceprint analysis Unit Tying the voice to the culprit
10. Crime-scene Investigation Unit Collect and preserve evidence to be processed
11. Forensic Psychiatry Human behavior to test competency, disorders and for criminal profiling
12. Forensic Odontology Dental evidence, bite marks
13. Forensic Engineering Accident reconstruction, cause and origin of fire/explosions
14. Forensic Computer and Digital Analysis Preserving digital information, cell phones, computers, etc.
15. Forensic Anthropology Using skeletal remains to identify information of victim
Scientific Method Question: who committed the crime? Hypothesis Experimentation If validated by experimentation, it becomes scientific evidence
What type of evidence is the strongest? • Physical • Eyewitness accounts and confessions can be misconstruded
Determining admissibility of evidence Must meet “Frye Standard”