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Mendelian Heredity CH12 pg 267. Sexual Reproduction. Combining of a sperm cell and an egg cell from two individuals The offspring of this "cross" will have characteristics from both "parents“ hybrid. Self – Pollination Contrasting traits, easy to grow and reproduce.

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sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
  • Combining of a sperm cell and an egg cell from two individuals
  • The offspring of this "cross" will have characteristics from both "parents“
    • hybrid
mendel s laws of heredity
Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
  • Law of Dominance - One factor (trait) in a pair may mask the effect of the other.
mendel s laws of heredity1
Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
  • Law of Segregation - The two traits for a characteristic separate during the formation of eggs and sperm.
mendel s laws of heredity2
Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
  • Law of Independent Assortment - The traits for different characteristics are distributed to reproductive cells independently. pg272
using punnett squares
Using Punnett Squares
  • Punnett Square
    • Model that predicts the likely outcomes of a genetic cross with the alleles taken from the parents
    • Shows all the genotypes that could result from a given cross
how to for punnett square
How to for Punnett Square
  • Capital letter
    • Dominant trait
    • Letter represents trait (B for brown)
    • Dominant always written first in sequence (Bb)
  • Lower case letter
    • recessive trait
    • same letter as dominant trait (b for blond)
monohybrid cross
Monohybrid Cross
  • Contrasting traits (purple vs white flower)
  • Homozygous Cross (PP or pp)
  • Heterozygous Cross (Pp)
    • Paternal alleles across the top
    • Maternal alleles down the left side
monohybrid cross1
Monohybrid Cross
  • Phenotype
  • Genotype
using probability
Using Probability
  • Likelihood that a specific event will occur
  • Probability = # of one kind of possible outcomes

total # of all possible outcomes

  • Probability of a specific allele in a gamete
  • Represented as a fraction or ratio
probability in a heterozygous cross
Probability in a Heterozygous Cross
  • Flipping a coin/ possible alleles
  • Both parents have Pp, How do you know?

P p

P

p

using a pedigree
Using a Pedigree
  • Several generations
  • Determine genetic disorders or diseases that can be inherited
  • Pedigrees can help answers questions about the three factors of inheritance
    • Sex-linked Genes
    • Dominant or Recessive
    • Heterozygous or Homozygous
many genes many alleles
Many Genes, Many Alleles
  • Polygenic Inheritance
    • Several genes affect characteristic
    • Relative greenness or brownness, blue eyes are recessive
many genes many alleles1
Many Genes, Many Alleles
  • Incomplete Dominance
    • Intermediate between traits
    • Snapdragon (red and white = pink)
many genes many alleles2
Many Genes, Many Alleles
  • Multiple Alleles
    • 3 or more possible alleles, only to alleles for a gene can be present
    • Complex dominance
    • Blood types and Labrador coat color
many genes many alleles3
Many Genes, Many Alleles
  • Codominance
    • Both Alleles for the same gene are fully expressed
genes affected by the environment
Genes affected by the Environment
  • Nutrients and temperature
  • Personality and behavior
genes linked within chromosome
Genes Linked Within Chromosome
  • Genes that are close together are less likely to be separated than genes that are far apart