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Chapter 15. Working Capital Management. Chapter Objectives. Managing current assets and current liabilities Appropriate level of working capital Estimating the cost of short-term credit Sources of short-term credit Multinational working-capital management. Working Capital.

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Chapter 15

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chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Managing current assets and current liabilities
  • Appropriate level of working capital
  • Estimating the cost of short-term credit
  • Sources of short-term credit
  • Multinational working-capital management
working capital
Working Capital
  • Working Capital
  • Traditionally is the firm’s total investment in current assets
  • Net working capital
  • Difference between the firm’s current assets and its current liabilities
  • Net working capital = Current assets – current liabilities
managing net working capital
Managing Net Working Capital
  • Equals managing liquidity
  • Entails two aspects of operations:
    • Investment in current assets
    • Use of short-term or current liabilities
short term sources of financing
Short-term Sources of Financing
  • Include all forms of financing that have maturities of 1 year of less or current liabilities
  • Two issues:
  • How much short-term financing should the firm use?
  • What specific sources of short-term financing should the firm select?
how much short term financing should a firm use
How Much Short-term Financing Should a Firm use?
  • Hedging principle of working-capital management
what specific sources of short term financing should the firm select
What Specific Sources of Short-term Financing Should the Firm Select?
  • Three factors influence the decision:
  • The effective cost of credit
  • The availability of credit
  • The influence of a particular credit source on other sources of financing
risk return trade off
Risk-Return Trade-off
  • Holding liquid investments reduces overall rate of return
  • Increased liquidity must be traded-off against the firm’s reduction in return on investment
  • Managing this trade-off is an important theme of working-capital management
liquidity risk
Liquidity Risk
  • Other things remaining the same, the greater the firm’s reliance on short-term debt or current liabilities in financing its assets, the greater the risk of illiquidity
  • A firm can reduce its risk of illiquidity through the use of long-term debt at the expense of a reduction in its return on invested funds
advantages of current liabilities
Advantages of Current Liabilities
  • Flexibility
    • Can be used to match the timing of a firm’s needs for short-term financing
  • Interest Cost
    • Interest rates on short-term debt are lower than on long-term debt
disadvantages of current liabilities
Disadvantages of Current Liabilities
  • Risk
    • Short-term debt must be repaid or rolled over more often
  • Uncertainty
    • Uncertainty of interest costs from year to year
appropriate level of working capital
Appropriate Level of Working Capital
  • Involves interrelated decisions
  • Can be a significant problem
  • Can utilize a type of benchmark
    • Hedging Principle or Principle of self-liquidating debt
hedging principle
Hedging Principle
  • Also known as Principle of Self-liquidating debt
  • Involves matching the cash flow generating characteristics of an asset with the maturity of the source of financing used to finance its acquisition
permanent and temporary assets
Permanent and Temporary Assets
  • Permanent investments
    • Investments that the firm expects to hold for a period longer than 1 year
  • Temporary Investments
    • Current assets that will be liquidated and not replaced within the current year
temporary permanent and spontaneous sources of financing
Temporary, Permanent and Spontaneous Sources of Financing
  • Temporary sources of financing
    • Current liabilities or short-term notes payable, unsecured bank loans, commercial paper, loans secured by accounts receivable and inventories
  • Permanent Sources of financing
    • Intermediate-term loans, long-term debt, preferred stock and common equity
  • Spontaneous Sources of financing
    • Arise in the firm’s day-to-day operation
    • Trade credit is often made available spontaneously or on demand from the firms supplies when the firm orders its supplies or inventory
hedging principle1
Hedging Principle
  • Asset needs of the firm not financed by spontaneous sources should be financed in accordance with this rule:
  • Permanent-asset investments are financed with permanent sources, and temporary investments are financed with temporary sources
cost of short term credit
Cost of Short-term Credit
  • Interest = principal X rate X time
  • Cost of short-term financing = APR or annual percentage rate
  • APR = interest/(principal X time)
  • or
  • APR = (interest/principal) X (1/time)
  • A company plans to borrow $1,000 for 90 days. At maturity, the company will repay the $1,000 principal amount plus $30 interest. What is the APR?
  • APR = ($30/$1,000) X [1/(90/360)]
  • .12 or 12%
  • APR does not consider compound interest. To account for the influence of compounding, must calculate APY or annual percentage yield
  • APY = (1 + i/m)m – 1
  • Where: I is the nominal rate of interest per year; m is number of compounding period within a year
apy calculation
APY Calculation
  • A company plans to borrow $1,000 for 90 days. At maturity, the company will repay the $1,000 principal amount plus $30 interest. What is the APY?
  • Number of compounding periods 360/90 = 4
  • Rate = 12% (previously calculated)
  • APY = (1 + .12/4)4 –1 = .126 or 12.6%
apr or apy
  • Because the differences between APR and APY are usually small, use the simple interest values of APR to compute the cost of short-term credit
sources of short term credit
Sources of Short-term Credit
  • Short-term credit sources can be classified into two basic groups:
  • Secured
  • Unsecured
secured loans
Secured Loans
  • Involve the pledge of specific assets as collateral in the event the borrower defaults in payment of principal or interest
  • Primary Suppliers:
    • Commercial banks, finance companies, and factors
  • The principal sources of collateral include accounts receivable and inventories
unsecured loans
Unsecured Loans
  • All sources that have as their security only the lender’s faith in the ability of the borrower to repay the funds when due
  • Major sources:
    • accrued wages and taxes, trade credit, unsecured bank loans, and commercial paper
cash discounts
Cash Discounts
  • Often, the credit terms associated with trade credit involve a cash discount for early payment.
  • Terms such as 2/10 net 30 means a 2 percent discount is offered for payment within 10 days, or the full amount is due in 30 days
  • A 2 percent penalty is involved for not paying within 10 days.
effective cost of passing up a discount
Effective Cost of Passing Up a Discount
  • Terms 2/10 net 30
  • Means a 2 percent discount is available for payment in 10 days or full amount is due in 30 days.
  • The equivalent APR of this discount is:
  • APR = .02/.98 X [1/(20/360)]
  • The effective cost of delaying payment for 20 days is 36.73%
unsecured sources of loans
Unsecured Sources of Loans
  • Bank Credit:
    • Lines of credit
    • Transaction loans (notes payable)
  • Commercial Paper
line of credit
Line of Credit
  • Line of Credit
    • Informal agreement between a borrower and a bank about the maximum amount of credit the bank will provide the borrower at any one time.
    • There is no legal commitment on the part of the bank to provide the stated credit
    • Usually require that the borrower maintain a minimum balance in the bank through the loan period or a compensating balance
  • Revolving Credit
    • Variant of the line of credit form of financing
    • A legal obligation is involved
transaction loans
Transaction Loans
  • Transactions loans
    • Made for a specific purpose
    • The type of loan that most individuals associate with bank credit and is obtained by signing a promissory note
commercial paper
Commercial Paper
  • The largest and most credit worthy companies are able to use commercial paper– a short-term promise to pay that is sold in the market for short-term debt securities
advantages of commercial paper
Advantages of Commercial Paper
  • Interest rates
    • Rates are generally lower than rates on bank loans
  • Compensating-balance requirement
    • No minimum balance requirements are associated with commercial paper
  • Amount of credit
    • Offers the firm with very large credit needs a single source for all its short-term financing
  • Prestige
    • Signifies credit status
secured sources of loans
Secured Sources of Loans
  • Accounts Receivable loans
    • Pledging Accounts Receivable
    • Factoring Accounts Receivable
  • Inventory loans
pledging accounts receivable
Pledging Accounts Receivable
  • Under pledging, the borrower simply pledges accounts receivable as collateral for a loan obtained from either a commercial bank or a finance company
  • The amount of the loan is stated as a percentage of the face value of the receivables pledged
  • Flexible source of financing
  • Can be costly
factoring accounts receivable
Factoring Accounts Receivable
  • Factoring accounts receivable involves the outright sale of a firm’s accounts to a financial institution called a factor
  • A factor is a firm that acquires the receivables of other firms
inventory loans
Inventory Loans
  • Loans secured by inventories
  • The amount of the loan depends on the marketability and perishability of the inventory
  • Types:
    • Floating lien agreement
    • Chattel Mortgage agreement
    • Field warehouse-financing agreement
    • Terminal warehouse agreement
types of inventory loans
Types of Inventory Loans
  • Floating Lien Agreement
    • The borrower gives the lender a lien against all its inventories.
    • The simplest but least-secure form
  • Chattel Mortgage Agreement
    • The inventory is identified and the borrower retains title to the inventory but cannot sell the items without the lender’s consent
Field warehouse-financing agreement
  • Inventories used as collateral are physically separated from the firm’s other inventories and are placed under the control of a third-party field-warehousing firm
  • Terminal warehouse agreement
  • The inventories pledged as collateral are transported to a public warehouse that is physically removed from the borrower’s premises.