the fertile crescent chapter 2 ii n.
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The Fertile Crescent Chapter 2:ii. The archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley discovered the city of Ur. [Image Source: Biblical Archaeology Review , July/August 1996, p. 56.]. The Crown of Queen Pu-Abi. [Image source: National Geographic ].

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slide2

The archaeologist

Sir Leonard

Woolley discovered

the city of Ur.

[Image Source: Biblical Archaeology Review, July/August 1996, p. 56.]

the crown of queen pu abi
The Crown of Queen Pu-Abi.

[Image source: National Geographic]

woolley s work showed that people had lived in mesopotamia for a long time
Woolley’s work showed that people had lived in Mesopotamia for a long time.

[Image source: Biblical Archaeology Review, July/August 1996, p. 56.]

people from arabia and the highlands of turkey migrated to the fertile crescent ca 5000 years b c
People from Arabia and the highlands of Turkey migrated to the Fertile Crescentca.5000 years B.C.
slide6
Clogged with deposits of silt, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers often overflowed, sometimes sweeping entire villages away.

[Image source: http://members.tripod.com/jaydambrosio/mesopotamia.html]

slide7
Villages in early Mesopotamia built elaborate systems to control seasonal flooding and divert river water to irrigate their fields.
circa 3500 b c the sumerians settled in the lower part of the tigris euphrates river valley
Circa3500 B.C. the Sumerians settled in the lower part of the Tigris-Euphrates river valley.

[Image source:http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/jmac/meso/meso.htm]

a ziggurat or temple was at the center of every sumerian city
A ziggurat, or temple, was at the center of every Sumerian city.

[Image source: http://www.taisei.co.jp/cg_e/ancient_world/ur/aur.html]

ziggurats were composed of a series of terraces with a temple or shrine on the top
Ziggurats were composed of a series of terraces with a temple or shrine on the top.

[Source: http://www.jlc.net/~brian/art/fertile_crescent.html]

slide13

This is longer

than the line

at Disney

World!

Only priests and priestesses were allowed to enter the shrine, which was dedicated to the city-state’s chief deity.

[Image source: http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/jmac/meso/meso.htm]

slide14

Hey! Cold

hands!

Every Sumerian city-state was originally governed by a council of nobles and an assembly of wealthy citizens.

[Image source: http://www.crystalinks.com/sumergods.html]

by 2700 b c many of the sumerian city states had become hereditary monarchies governed by kings
By 2700 B.C. many of the Sumerian city-states had become hereditary monarchies governed by kings.

[Image source: http://www.jlc.net/~brian/art/fertile_crescent.html]

sumerian kings also served as the high priest representing the city state s chief deity
Sumerian kings also served as the high priest, representing the city-state’s chief deity.

[Image source: http://members.tripod.com/jaydambrosio/mesopotamia.html]

sumerian city states were also theocracies where much of the land belonged to the local deity
Sumerian city-states were also theocracieswhere much of the land belonged to the local deity.

[Image source: http://www.taisei.co.jp/cg_e/ancient_world/ur/aur.html1

game of ur
Game of Ur

[Image source: http://members.tripod.com/jaydambrosio/mesopotamia.html]

family life and the roles of men and women was regulated by sumerian law
Family life and the roles of men and women was regulated by Sumerian law.

[Image source: http://www.taisei.co.jp/cg_e/ancient_world/ur/aur.html]

as heads of households men exercised great authority over their wives and children
As heads of households, men exercised great authority over their wives and children.

[Image source: http://home.korax.net/~websiter/postcards.html]

sumerian law allowed men to sell family members into slavery in order to retire a debt
Sumerian law allowed men to sell family members into slavery in order to retire a debt!

[Image source: http://arthistory.about.com/arts/arthistory/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww-oi.uchicago.edu%2FOI%2FMUS%2FHIGH%2FOIM_A12332.html]

women were allowed to buy and sell property operate businesses and own and sell slaves
Women were allowed to buy and sell property, operate businesses, and own and sell slaves.

[ http://www.upenn.edu/museum/Collections/royaltombsoverview.html]

writing on clay tablets
Writing onClay Tablets

[Image source: http://early-cuneiform.humnet.ucla.edu/archaic/index.html]

slide25
By 3100 B.C. the Sumerians developed a system of writing known as cuneiform, or “wedged-shaped writing,” to keep records.

[Image source: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/SUM/Sumerian_Tablet.html1]

cuneiform began with pictograms or pictures meant to represent the items depicted
Cuneiform began with pictograms or pictures meant to represent the items depicted.

[Image source: http://www.upenn.edu/museum/Games/cuneiform.html]

sumerians wanting to become scribes spent many years studying in schools called eddudas
Sumerians wanting to become scribes spent many years studying in schools called eddudas.

[Image source: National Geographic]

slide29
The Epic of Gilgamesh, possibly the oldest story in the world, was first written in cuneiform circa1850 B.C.

[Image source: http://members.tripod.com/jaydambrosio/mesopotamia.html]

sumerians used cylinder seals to sign legal documents
Sumerians used cylinder seals to “sign” legal documents.

[Image source: http://members.tripod.com/jaydambrosio/mesopotamia.html]

sumerian religion
Sumerian Religion

[Image source: http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/jmac/meso/meso.htm]

each city state had a patron god or goddess to whom they prayed
Each city-state had a patron god or goddess to whom they prayed.

[Image source: http://crystalinks.com/sumerart.html]

slide39
Sumarians pictured their deities as unpredictable, selfish beings who had little regard for human life.
slide40
Sumerian priests and priestesses performed religious ceremonies and rituals in an effort to appease their tempermental dieties.

[Image source: http://crystalinks.com/sumerart.html]

sumerian inventions
Sumerian Inventions

[Image source: Scientific American]

image source http www faculty fairfield edu faculty jmac meso meso htm
[Image source:http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/jmac/meso/meso.htm]

Wagon wheel

slide48
Arch

[Image source: http://www.nps.gov/jeff/arch-ov.htm]

image source http billtom home mindspring com dgates wheel html
[Image source: http://billtom.home.mindspring.com/dgates/wheel.html]

Potter’s wheel

image source http www floridaplants com store sundials htm
[Image source: http://www.floridaplants.com/store/sundials.htm]

Sun Dial

first to make bronze out of copper and tin
First to make bronzeout of copperand tin.

{image source: Scientific American]

slide53
The Sumerians produced an abundance of finely crafted metal work, some of which was recovered in the Royal Cemetery at Ur.

[Image source: http://www.upenn.edu/museum/Collections/royaltombsoverview.html]

the first empire builder in mesopotamia was sargon i of akkad
The first empire-builder in Mesopotamia was Sargon Iof Akkad.

[Image source: http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ue/ueg.html]

sargon i conquered all the city states of mesopotamia and united them in one empire
Sargon I conquered all the city-states of Mesopotamia and united them in one empire.

[Image source: http://www.crystalinks.com/sumermilitary.html]

under sargon the people of mesopotamia began to use the akkadian language
Under Sargon, the people of Mesopotamia began to use the Akkadian language.

[Image source: http://www.crystalinks.com/akkadia.html]

the city state of ebla was located northwest of the kingdom of akkad
The city-state of Ebla was located northwest of the kingdom of Akkad.

[Images source: National Geographic]

control of the overland trade routes between egypt and mesopotamia made ebla a wealthy city
Control of the overland trade routes between Egypt and Mesopotamia made Ebla a wealthy city.

[Image source: National Geographic]

sargon s grandson naram sin captured and burned the city of ebla
Sargon’s grandson Naram-Sin captured and burned the city of Ebla.

[Image source: National Geographic]

the destruction of ebla had the effect of preserving a vast library of cuneiform texts
The destruction of Ebla had the effect of preserving a vast library of cuneiform texts.

[Image source: http://www.mazzaroth.com/ChapterFour/Ebla.htm]

slide63
The Amorites, a Semitic people from western Syria, poured into Mesopotamia and overran many Sumerian cities circa 2000 B.C..
hammurabi a scion of the dynasty founded at babylon brought the entire region under his control
Hammurabi, a scion of the dynasty founded at Babylon, brought the entire region under his control.
hammurabi organized a strong government and worked to increase the prosperity of his people
Hammurabi organized a strong government and worked to increase the prosperity of his people.

[Image source: http://members.tripod.com/jaydambrosio/mesopotamia.html]

hammurabi created a unified code of law that regulated most aspects of daily life
Hammurabi created a unified code of law that regulated most aspects of daily life.

Source: Biblical Archaeological Review, March/April 1995, p. 49.

slide67
Hammurabi’s Code clearly stated which actions were considered violations and assigned specific punishments for each.

[Image source: http://www.getnet.com/~labores/babylonia.html]

hammurabi s purpose was to make justice appear in the land
Hammurabi’s purpose was“to make justice appear in the land.”

[Image source: http://www.getnet.com/~labores/babylonia.html]

hammurabi s code consisted of 282 sections some of which dealt with
Hammurabi’s code consisted of 282 sections, some of which dealt with:
  • property of married women
  • adoption and inheritance
  • interest rates on loans
  • damage to fields by cattle
hammurabi s code divided society into three social classes
Hammurabi’s Code divided society into three social classes:

kings, priests, & nobles

artisans,

merchants,

scribes, & farmers

slaves

the babylonians borrowed heavily from sumerian culture
The Babylonians borrowed heavily from Sumerian culture.
  • Why? Duh! Same people, same place, different government.