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Solar Hydrogen Update

Solar Hydrogen Update

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Solar Hydrogen Update

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  1. Solar Hydrogen Update 24th November 2009

  2. Updates • Carver’s reactor • Reactor fitting • Mirrors • Improvements on model • Reactor models discussion • Mechanistic studies • Kinetic data • Feasibility of annular configuration

  3. Carver’s Reactor Reactor setup • Issues • Extra pumps • Extra inventory H2 O2 Reactor Pump Pump Feed Tank

  4. Carver’s Reactor Reactor setup • Issues • Limited feed tank opening H2 O2 Reactor Pump Feed Tank

  5. Carver’s Reactor Reactor setup H2 O2 • Issues • Rate of gases separate from liquid • Might need a hydrocyclone for gas-liquid separation Reactor Pump Feed Tank

  6. Mirror From Optical Mechanics Inc. Quotation is yet to receive

  7. Mirror

  8. Reaction Kinetics k1 Semiconductor + hν Semiconductor (e-, h+) H2O H2 + ½ O2 k2 2H+ + 2e- H2 k3 H2O + 2h+ 2H+ + ½ O2 • How fast is the hydrogen generation ? • This rate might overcome the low efficiency performance • Mechanistic study get help from chemistry ? • Study on the reaction rate can be obtained from the current reactor • This would improve the reactor model

  9. Annular Configuration Spoken to Prof. James R Taylor (Imperial College Physics Dept.) • Energy loss ~10 db/km • Could Si or quartz as fibre material • It is feasible and worth investigating in future

  10. Annular Configuration Lens in focusing the light Fibre optic coated with photo-anode at the outer surface Hollow fibre membrane Cathode

  11. Focusing task • Setting up carver’s reactor for preliminary testing • Should we get new burette? • Improve on the current reactor model • Run the plasma deposition unit for photo-anode characterisation

  12. Light Intensity - Spectra: PBR1 – Low intensity LED array PBR2 – High intensity LED array Culture reactor – Cool white fluorescent lights Sartorius reactor – Cool white fluorescent lights

  13. Light Intensity – Spectral matches: CC-124 absorption to LED emission CC-124 absorption to fluorescent emission

  14. Pumps – Watson Marlow: Peristaltic 300 series - £1222.00 Flow up to 2l/min Microprocessor or manual control Brushless DC motor 2 year warranty 5.6kg, 233x230x132mm Peristaltic 500 series - £603.00 Flow up to 4.5l/min Fixed speed pump AC motor gearbox 2 year warranty 11kg, 360x170x140mm

  15. Pumps – KNF Neuberger: Liquid Diaphragm Pump, NF30 series - £114.06* • General: • Oscillating displacement pump • DC motor • Mounted in any position • Oil/maintenance free • Weight ≈ 500g • Flow: • Around 0.3l/min for liquid pump • Around 2l/min for gas pump • Flow rate adjusted by changing input voltage – 4 lead DCB (brushless) motor for optimum control Gas Diaphragm Pump, modified NMP830 - £182.73* • Modification: • NMP830 gas-tight • Aluminium head • EPDM diaphragm and valves • G1/8 threaded port (Swagelok connection) • Designed for He pumping

  16. Pumps – KNF Neuberger: Modified Liquid Diaphragm Pump, NMP015 series • Solar simulator (Fessehaye) reactor: • NMP015 may be modified to be gas-tight (expensive) • Stainless steel/aluminium head • EPDM diaphragm and valves • “Low algal death rates” MSc/PhD Students: • Stephanie Hoarau (SEF): • Develop MIMS system • Develop filtration system • Annalisa (University of Milan)

  17. FZ • Design – flat panel bioreactor • Update on instrumentation and data analysis

  18. Flat Panel design: • gravitational flow • Cleaning • Probes • Support

  19. Assembling the system:

  20. NI USB-6229 BNC • 16-Bit, 250 kS/s M Series, Integrated BNC, External Power • 16 differential BNC analog inputs (16-bit, 250 kS/s) • 4 BNC analog ouputs (16-bit, 833 kS/s), 48 digital I/O (32 clocked, 8 BNC), and 32-bit counters • NI Signal Streaming for sustained high-speed data streams over USB; OEM version available • Compatible with LabVIEW, ANSI C/C++, C#, Visual Basic .NET and Visual Basic 6.0 • NI-DAQmx driver software and NI LabVIEW SignalExpress LE interactive data-logging software

  21. Fe2O3: spray pyrolysis • Effect of Sn doping on: • Electrochemical properties • Morphological properties

  22. Undoped Fe2O3: 10 layers

  23. Undoped Fe2O3: 20 layers

  24. Doped Fe2O3: 10 layers

  25. Doped Fe2O3: 20 layers

  26. Doped Fe2O3: 15 layers

  27. Undoped Fe2O3: 15 layers

  28. Doped Fe2O3: 20 layers

  29. On-going work • Effect of Sn-doping • Lower/higher doping concentrations • Film thickness measurements • Quantum efficiency measurements • Effective H2 yields

  30. CO2 Reduction Mechanism • CO2 + e- CO2- • CO2- + H+ + e- HCOO- • CO2- + H2O + e-  HCOO- + OH- • CO2- + H+ + e-  CO + OH- • CO2- + H2O + e- CO + 2OH-

  31. Low CO2 concentration in aqueous systems Feed CO2 in gas phase through gas diffusion electrodes along with steam

  32. PEC Reactor Development