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powerpoint 3b. painting techniques traditional techniques and painting styles. methods of painting. painting techniques the meaning and uses of various techniques applying these techniques exploring themes with techniques painting media watercolor gouache oil acrylic

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    1. powerpoint 3b painting techniques traditional techniques and painting styles

    2. methods of painting • painting techniques • the meaning and uses of various techniques • applying these techniques • exploring themes with techniques • painting media • watercolor • gouache • oil • acrylic • styles in painting • naturalism • impressionism • expressionism • abstract art • nonobjective

    3. washes, wet-in-wet and wet-over-dry • method and practice • a translucent or watered down pigment applied to a surface • washes are applied to either dry or wet surfaces • wet-in-wet are applied to wet surfaces; colors are wet and applied into one another • wet-over-dry are applied to dry surfaces; a dried color serves as the basis and a wet color is applied on top • how it is applied • flat washes are applied to dampened papers or canvases and light pigment is dragged across • washes are usually applied with flat, wide or fan brushes and/or sponges • variegated washes are different colored washes which bleed or melt into one another • graded washes blend two colors together creating a gradient • granulated washes use two or pigments that naturally separate and are left to dry on their own, undisturbed

    4. blending • method and practice • achieving gradations, that is soft transitions from one hue to the next • how it is applied • using a flat bristle brush, apply acrylic paint to the canvas and then, working very quickly, apply a wet brush to smear the colors together • using a fan brush, apply various colors to each part of the brush and then drag it across the canvas • wet-in-wet techniques for watercolor allow for subtle blends • drybrushing and scumbling work well for acrylic, tempera and gouache • oils are naturally “buttery” and smear well but can become muddy if over smeared

    5. glazing and staining • method and practice • a translucent surfaces of color which are built up with subsequent translucent colors • colors blend together as the undercoats show through the top layers of pigment • how it is applied • in oil, glazing is achieved by mixing more turpentine into the pigment • in watercolor and acrylic water is used to create a glaze (similar to a wash) • diluted paint can be used to stain the canvas or paper as opposed to an opaque color

    6. alla prima • method and practice • working wet-in-wet and directly onto the painting surface with rapid brushstrokes • very spontaneous, usually without a preliminary drawing • how it is applied • in watercolor, alla prima is ideal for spontaneity with its fast, fluid strokes • in oil and acrylic, alla prima is achieved by diluting the media in turpentine or water and allows the previous layers of color to show through

    7. backrunsand other wet techniques • method and practice • wet techniques such as backruns, blowing, dripping, drizzling and splattering create hard edges when the pigment dries • drip or splash pigment into a wash that has not completely dried but has lost its sheen • how it is applied • paint is displaced across the wash (a coat of clear water or heavily watered down pigment) by dripping pigment • can create trails and blotches when flicked, blown or drizzled

    8. broken color • method and practice • broken color refers to any application of paint in separate strokes of pure color without blending • how it is applied • daubing: hasty or crude strokes • pointillism: small dots of pure color to create optical effects of implying shapes, line and color mixing • feathering: light, loose, diagonal strokes which resembles “feathers”

    9. drybrushing • method and practice • an area of color, that is already dried, is lightly “dusted” with a brush loaded with barely wet pigment • the bristles of the brush create an impression with the pigment • how it is applied • in watercolor, less water is used with a pigment-loaded brush (flats or rounds) and is blotted to remove extra moisture • in acrylic and oil the rough texture of the canvas lends itself to drybrushing, which usually brings out this natural texture

    10. naturalism • defining aspects of the movement • paintings should adhere as closely as possible to the look of the natural world • these images are said to look “realistic” although this should not be confused with realism which was actually an offshoot movement in its own right • how it is applied • imitate the natural world as closely as possible using various methods and techniques • emphasize lighting, chiaroscuro, form/mass, and texture • often employs atmospheric perspective and natural color mixing

    11. impressionism • defining aspects of the movement • broke the rules of established art, at the time • possibly a backlash against the advent of photography as it was considered futile to paint realistically when the camera can do it better • concerned with the distribution of light and color in a natural setting • how it is applied • feathery, loose strokes and daubs of pure color placed next to one another • painted en plein air, outside of the studio in the scene on location • grays and dark tones are created through the mixing of complimentary colors as opposed to shades made with black • opaque colors without glazing

    12. expressionism • defining aspects of the movement • concerned with the inner or personal world as opposed to the outside world • backlash against impressionism and naturalism • reality is internal and emotional as opposed to natural or empirical • often has an emotional dimension • how it is applied • arbitrary color choices • juxtaposed compositions consisting of symbolic and objects which could be subjectively interpreted

    13. abstract art • defining aspects of the movement • complete refusal of naturalism • objects and figures are reduced to visual symbols often simplistic, stylized and/or geometric • only vaguely references nature • includes movements like fauvism, cubism, modernism, surrealism and derives from post-impressionism via the simplification of natural forms into simpler shapes • how it is applied • uses a visual language of color and form • becomes more like music through pure elements and the use of time • work is conceptual and meaning is derived from timeless and universal symbols like those found in geometry

    14. nonobjective • defining aspects of the movement • does not refer to any physical object or figurative object in nature • does not represent or even symbolize any actual object/figure or scene • breaks through abstraction to complete minimalism • how it is applied • explores pure color, pure form, motion and time • rejects the external world • interplay of static and dynamic elements

    15. things to ponder… • the art movement paradigm • like other disciplines, art can be divided into paradigms • a paradigm is a set of practices, beliefs and theories concerning a discipline • paradigms are specific to time periods, to cultures and to groups of artists • evolving art • paradigms are often seen developing from previous paradigms by rejecting or modifying the prior era’s tenants • can you see a linear connection between the different styles and movement in painting? • can you see how practices and methods in drawing led to the development of painting techniques? • can you see the connection between the development of oil painting, watercolor and acrylic painting?